Information

INPP Neuromotor Immaturity

INPP Neuromotor Immaturity

Can someone shed some light on this "Neuromotor Immaturity (NMI)" syndrome that's been mainly promoted/researched by a UK group called INPP. As you can seen from that page, they take themselves very seriously, "diagnosing NMI", as if it is well accepted diagnostic term. There's a Wiley book about it--written by the director of INPP--but not much else I can find… no Wikipedia page or much in the way of scientific articles about it. Is it some new term for an old thing, or what?


INPP Method

The Institute of Neuro Physiological Psychology (INPP) was established over 40 years ago in 1975. The INPP researches effects of dysfunction in the Central Nervous System that correlate with learning difficulties.

The institute also develops appropriate remedial exercise programmes which are completely non-invasive and drug-free. These individually devised programmes help children to succeed by addressing physical factors underlying learning and behaviour issues.

The INPP has trained therapists in many countries worldwide.

It addresses

  • Under achievement without a diagnosis
  • Dyslexia
  • Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)
  • Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
  • Poor co-ordination including clumsiness and balance related problems
  • Poor concentration and impulsivity
  • Behavioural problems
  • Bedwetting

She is more self confident and self directed. She is more accepting of things and can take correction now. She doesn’t protest or there isn’t as much drama. She looks forward to swimming now in the past she hated it. She has all her things packed herself and is more organised.

Mother of 12-year-old girl


Download Now!

We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe Pdf. To get started finding Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe Pdf, you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed.
Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented.

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe Pdf I can get now!

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

It's very easy to get quality ebooks )

so many fake sites. this is the first one which worked! Many thanks

wtffff i do not understand this!

Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.


About the Author

Sally Goddard Blythe is International Director of The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP) in Chester, UK. She is the author of seven books on child development, including Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning: The INPP Developmental Screening Test and School Intervention Programme (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), The Genius of Natural Childhood (2011), and Attention, Balance and Coordination: The A.B.C. of Learning Success (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).


1.2 Rationale for Screening and Remediation of Neuromotor Immaturity 2

1.4 The INPP Developmental Movement Programme for Schools 3

1.5 What is Neuromotor Immaturity? 4

1.6 What is the Significance of Primitive Reflexes to Education? 4

1.7 What are Primitive Reflexes? 5

1.8 What is the Significance of Neuromotor Maturity to Education? 5

1.9 What is the Purpose of Developmental Screening Tests? 7

1.10 Why Assess Posture and Balance? 7

1.11 Why Carry Out Assessments for Balance? 8

1.12 What is the Difference Between Static Balance and Dynamic Balance? 8

1.13 What is the Significance of Postural Control to Learning? 9

1.14 Primitive Reflexes: Why Have These Three Reflexes Been Selected for Evaluation? 9

1.14.1 The Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 9

1.14.2 The Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 10

1.14.3 The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) 12

1.15 What Evidence is There Linking Balance, Posture and Reflexes to Educational Achievement? 12

1.16 What Evidence is There That Intervention in the Form of Movement Programmes Aimed at the Level of Primitive Reflexes Improves Educational Outcomes? 15

1.17 How to Use The Screening Tests 16

2 Developmental Screening Tests for Use with Children Aged 4𔃅 Years 20

2.1 General instructions 20

2.2.3 The Crawling on Hands and Knees Test 24

2.2.4 Crossing the Midline, Test No. 1 25

2.2.5 Crossing the Midline, Test No. 2 26

2.2.6 Finger and Thumb Opposition Test 27

2.3 Tests for Primitive Reflexes 29

2.3.1 Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 29

2.3.2 The Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 31

2.3.3 Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) – Erect Test 32

2.4 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 34

2.4.1 Pencil and Paper Tasks 35

2.4.2 Additional Measures 37

2.5 Score Sheets for 4𔃅 Year Old Test 39

2.7 Interpreting the Scores 41

2.7.1 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination, Balance and Reflexes 41

2.7.2 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 41

3 Developmental Screening Tests for Use with Children from 7 Years of Age 43

3.1 General Instructions 43

3.2 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination and Balance 44

3.2.2 Walking on the Outsides of the Feet (Fog Test) 46

3.3 Tests for Aberrant Primitive Reflexes 47

3.3.1 The Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 47

3.3.2 Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 51

3.3.3 The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) 52

3.4 Tests for Oculomotor Functioning 53

3.4.1 Test for Fixation, Convergence and Control of Saccades (Valett) 54

3.4.2 Test for Visual Integration 54

3.5 Tests for Visual-Speech Recognition 55

3.5.1 Sound Discrimination (Individual Sounds, Sound Blends and Syllables) 55

3.6 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 56

3.6.2 Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) 57

3.6.3 Spatial Difficulties 59

3.6.4 The Tansley Standard Visual Figures Test 59

3.6.5 Figures Based on The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test 59

3.6.6 Scoring the Visual-Perceptual Tests 61

3.6.7 Additional Measures 65

3.7 Score Sheets (7þ Test) 66

3.8 Observation Sheets (7þ Test) 67

3.9 How to Interpret The Scores 68

3.9.1 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination, Balance and Reflexes 68

3.9.2 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 68

3.9.3 Tests for Auditory–Speech Recognition 68

4 The INPP Developmental Movement Programme 70

4.1 How to use the INPP Developmental Movement Programme 70

4.1.1 Developmental Movements 71

4.1.2 Why Use a Movement Programme to Improve Educational Performance? 71


ISBN 13: 9781118736968

Blythe, Sally Goddard

This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Available to healthcare professionals for the first time, this book contains proven screening tests to measure neuromotor immaturity in children and adults in order to provide a basis for referral and help.

  • Allows practitioners to screen for disorders of movement that can negatively affect educational performance and emotional function in children and adolescents
  • Assesses instances where disorders of movement in adults are affecting thoughts and behavior, as in panic disorder
  • Provides a novel approach for health care professionals observing aberrant reflexes in the absence of more serious pathology
  • Includes reproducible scoring and observation sheets for practice and serves as the perfect complement to Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

Undiagnosed neuromotor immaturity is increasingly being held responsible for a broad range of symptoms, including anxiety, behavioral disorders, and learning difficulties. Available to healthcare professionals for the first time, this book contains proven screening tests to measure neuromotor immaturity in children and adults in order to provide a basis for referral and help. Based on the pioneering work of Sally Goddard Blythe and the Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology, it provides reproducible scoring and observation sheets for use in practice.

The screening tests allow healthcare practitioners to assess disorders of movement that can negatively affect educational performance and emotional function in children and adolescents, as well as the thoughts and behavior of adults. It is a novel approach for healthcare professionals who observe aberrant reflexes in their patients in the absence of more serious pathology. The perfect complement to Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning, these tests makes new resources and information available to patients who are often overlooked by standard clinical and educational services.


Videos

Top reviews from the United States

I own three books by Sally Goddard Blythe: this one, Reflexes, Learning, and Behavior, and Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. I will be reviewing all three books, since I spent a lot of time trying to figure out which book would help me. Since they are not inexpensive, perhaps I can save someone a bit of money and time.

This is the third book I have purchased by this author, and I like it the least of the three I own. When I first learned that this book was being published (August 2014), I was excited about it because I have found few books that address retained reflexes in adults.

When it arrived, I spent a lot of time comparing the content of it to the other two Goddard Blythe books I mentioned above. I was *quite* disappointed to discover that MUCH of the material in this book was word for word content from her book Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. In this book, there are tests to check for retained primitive reflexes in children and adults. The adult testing section appeared to be almost exactly the same content as the tests for children above the age of seven in the Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning text.

Needless to say, I felt like I had been cheated out of good money because so much of the material in this "new" book was verbatim from her other books. Even at the discounted Amazon price of $85 (publisher price is $95), the duplicate content in this book made this book ridiculously overpriced.

So why did I keep the book? It had new material that was useful enough that I thought I should keep it. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning focused on three reflexes, while this book focused on four reflexes. (It added content on the Moro Reflex). It also had photographs of the initial testing position and position after testing, which was an improvement on the stick figures in the testing section in Reflexes, Learning, and Behavior. (I do wish, though, that the photographs were bigger, in color, and clearer.) Also, this book had new information on the vestibular system, which I don't believe is in the other two books mentioned above.

If my local library had this book available, I would have returned it for a refund. But, as I said, there was just enough new information for me to want it on my shelf.

I hope you found my review helpful, and please see my other reviews on the two books mentioned above.


INPP Neuromotor Immaturity - Psychology

Educational policy by successive governments has increasingly been driven by aiming at outcomes rather than seeking to understand the processes of how children learn.

New research confirms that there are wide differences in children’s physical readiness for learning and suggests that more detailed attention should be given to the physical foundations for learning in the pre-school and school years.

Healthy babies, born at full term are equipped with a set of primitive reflexes, which support survival in the first months of life. Examples of primitive reflexes include the rooting and sucking reflexes, which facilitate feeding the palmar grasp reflex and other reflexes which respond directly to stimulation of the balance mechanism.

As connections to higher centres in the brain develop during the first six months of post-natal life, these early primitive reflexes are inhibited and/or transformed into postural reactions, which provide the foundations for subconscious control of posture (needed to sit still), balance (needed to provide a stable base for eye movements involved in reading, writing and copying) and coordination (the medium of expression in the classroom). In neurological terms, the process of early reflex integration consists of transition from brain stem reflex response to cortically controlled response.

If primitive reflexes are retained beyond the first year of life or postural reactions do not develop fully, they provide markers of immaturity in the functioning of the central nervous system, can interfere with natural development and contribute to later difficulties with psychomotor development affecting social skills and educational performance.Numerous earlier studies have pointed to a relationship between residual primitive reflexes and educational under-achievement .

In 1996, based on a method originally devised at The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP), a screening test and school intervention programme was developed to enable teachers to identify signs of immaturity in psychomotor development, which might undermine school performance . Following extensive evaluation, the screening test and school intervention programme was published in 2012 followed by a screening test for clinicians and health practitioners in 2014.

New Research

New research carried out in Poland in 2016 and 2017 suggests that these screening tools should be more widely used by professionals involved in child development and education to help identify children who show signs of neuromotor immaturity (NMI) and who would benefit from physical intervention programmes to minimize the influence of developmental disorders on educational achievement.

The first study involving 135 children (64 boys and 71 girls) in two age groups: 4-6 years (pre-school group) and 7 – 9 years (school age group), revealed that despite the theory that primitive reflexes are naturally inhibited in the first six months of life, they can and do persist in the general population. The authors commented that, “the study shows that spontaneous integration of reflexes is fuller in school age children than in pre-school children” and that “the introduction of screening and treatment of reflex integration at the stage of preschool and early childhood may be a part of the prevention of developmental disorders”. They also commented that wider population studies are recommended to define more accurate age standard for integration.

A second study by the same team involving 35 pre-school children assessed using both the INPP Screening Test(10) and the Motor Proficiency Test showed that the greater the severity of the reflex(es), the lower the motor proficiency. The authors concluded that, “it seems reasonable to introduce reflex integration therapy in children with low psychomotor skills. Primitive reflexes routinely tested, can contribute to improved early psychomotor development in children with needs, thus preventing many difficulties which children can encounter within their social and school life”.

Further Reading

Abstracts of this new research in English may be found by following the links to references 12 and 13 in the article or:

For further information about the screening test, intervention programme and training courses: https://www.inpp.org.uk

References:
  1. Gustafsson D, 1971. A comparison of basic reflexes with the subtests of the Purdue-Perceptual-Motor Survey. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Kansas.
  2. Bender ML. 1976.Bender-Purdue Reflex Test and Training Manual. San Rafael, CA. Academic Publications.
  3. Rider B, 1976. Relationship of postural reflexes to learning disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 26/5:239-243.
  4. McPhillips M & Sheehy N, 2004. Prevalence of persistent primary reflexes and motor problems in children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia 10/4:316-338 5.
  5. Goddard Blythe SA, 2001. Neurological dysfunction as a significant factor in children diagnosed with dyslexia. Proceedings of The 5th International British Dyslexia Association Conference. University of York. April 2001.
  6. Taylor M et al. 2004. Primitive reflexes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education.19/1:23-37.
  7. Goddard Blythe SA, 1996. The INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools with Children with Special Needs. Chester. INPP Ltd. Restricted Publication
  8. North Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB) 2004. An evaluation of the pilot INPP movement programme in primary schools in the North Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB), Northern Ireland. Final Report. Prepared by Brainbox Research Ltd for the NEELB. www.neeelb.org.uk.
  9. Releasing educational potential through movement. A summary of individual studies carried out using the INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools with Children with Special Needs. Child Care in Practice.11/4:415-432.
  10. Assessing neuromotor readiness for learning. The INPP screening test and school intervention programme. Chichester. Wiley-Blackwell
  11. Goddard Blythe SA, 2014. Neuromotor immaturity in children and adults. The INPP screening test for clinicians and health practitioners. Chichester. Wiley-Blackwell.
  12. Gieysztor E, Sadowska L, Choińska AM, 2017. The degree of primitive reflexes integration as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological maturity of healthy pre-school and early school age children. Journal of Public Nursing and Public Health. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
  13. Gieysztor E, Choińska AM, Paprocka-Borowicz M, 2016. Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated motor problems in healthy pre-school children. Archives of Medical Science. https://doi.org/10.5114/acms.2016.60503

2021 INPP International Conference Online

The XXVI. INPP INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE is set to be an exceptional event thanks to the promised participation of several excellent experts from around the world. Do not miss this rare opportunity to attend this unique online opportunity from the comfort of your home or workplace, and at a lower price than the usual conference fees.

Lectures will be presented / simultaneously interpreted in the following languages: Slovak, English, Polish, Spanish, German, Hungarian and Russian. Most presentations will be available after the conference, so you can play them at your chosen time.

Here is a preview of the program:

XXVI. INTERNATIONAL INPP CONFERENCE: DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY CHILD AND ADULT CLIENT CARE

28th – 29th May 2021, online

The conference provides a forum for discussion and exchange of knowledge from professional fields allied to Medicine, Psychology and Education. It focuses on various aspects of child development and child and adult dysfunctions.

Experts from different countries will share with participants the knowledge and experience of both practice and research in the areas of neuromotor development, metabolism, nutrition, auditory processing and visual functioning and psychology.

Speakers include:

Norman Doidge (CA) – THE BRAIN’S WAY OF HEALING

Norman is a leading expert on neuroplasticity, author of books The Brain That Changes Itself and The Brain’s Way of Healing.

Sally Goddard Blythe (GB) – LEARNING TO MOVE MOVING TO LEARN. HOW PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT LAYS THE FOUNDATIONS FOR LEARNING

Sally is a leading expert on neuromotor immaturity and a correlation between immature motor skills and lower educational performance.

Other presenters include:

Codoni (CH) and her concept of the body orientated speech therapy k-o-s-t

M. D. Alcon (IT) about stimulation of an immature reflex system in severe neurodevelopmental disorders

R. Malak (PL) about the role of Tomatis method,

M. Santiago Buey (ES) about QEEG diagnostic and a treatment combining INPP and biofeedback,

T. Hošková (SK) about functional optometry

and other leading experts.

See the leaflet for more information. You can register online NOW and read the other detailed information about the conference on the INPP International Conference website.


Download Now!

We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe . To get started finding Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe , you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed.
Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented.

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe I can get now!

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

It's very easy to get quality ebooks )

so many fake sites. this is the first one which worked! Many thanks

wtffff i do not understand this!

Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.


2021 INPP International Conference Online

The XXVI. INPP INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE is set to be an exceptional event thanks to the promised participation of several excellent experts from around the world. Do not miss this rare opportunity to attend this unique online opportunity from the comfort of your home or workplace, and at a lower price than the usual conference fees.

Lectures will be presented / simultaneously interpreted in the following languages: Slovak, English, Polish, Spanish, German, Hungarian and Russian. Most presentations will be available after the conference, so you can play them at your chosen time.

Here is a preview of the program:

XXVI. INTERNATIONAL INPP CONFERENCE: DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY CHILD AND ADULT CLIENT CARE

28th – 29th May 2021, online

The conference provides a forum for discussion and exchange of knowledge from professional fields allied to Medicine, Psychology and Education. It focuses on various aspects of child development and child and adult dysfunctions.

Experts from different countries will share with participants the knowledge and experience of both practice and research in the areas of neuromotor development, metabolism, nutrition, auditory processing and visual functioning and psychology.

Speakers include:

Norman Doidge (CA) – THE BRAIN’S WAY OF HEALING

Norman is a leading expert on neuroplasticity, author of books The Brain That Changes Itself and The Brain’s Way of Healing.

Sally Goddard Blythe (GB) – LEARNING TO MOVE MOVING TO LEARN. HOW PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT LAYS THE FOUNDATIONS FOR LEARNING

Sally is a leading expert on neuromotor immaturity and a correlation between immature motor skills and lower educational performance.

Other presenters include:

Codoni (CH) and her concept of the body orientated speech therapy k-o-s-t

M. D. Alcon (IT) about stimulation of an immature reflex system in severe neurodevelopmental disorders

R. Malak (PL) about the role of Tomatis method,

M. Santiago Buey (ES) about QEEG diagnostic and a treatment combining INPP and biofeedback,

T. Hošková (SK) about functional optometry

and other leading experts.

See the leaflet for more information. You can register online NOW and read the other detailed information about the conference on the INPP International Conference website.


INPP Method

The Institute of Neuro Physiological Psychology (INPP) was established over 40 years ago in 1975. The INPP researches effects of dysfunction in the Central Nervous System that correlate with learning difficulties.

The institute also develops appropriate remedial exercise programmes which are completely non-invasive and drug-free. These individually devised programmes help children to succeed by addressing physical factors underlying learning and behaviour issues.

The INPP has trained therapists in many countries worldwide.

It addresses

  • Under achievement without a diagnosis
  • Dyslexia
  • Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)
  • Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
  • Poor co-ordination including clumsiness and balance related problems
  • Poor concentration and impulsivity
  • Behavioural problems
  • Bedwetting

She is more self confident and self directed. She is more accepting of things and can take correction now. She doesn’t protest or there isn’t as much drama. She looks forward to swimming now in the past she hated it. She has all her things packed herself and is more organised.

Mother of 12-year-old girl


Download Now!

We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe . To get started finding Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe , you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed.
Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented.

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these Neuromotor Immaturity In Children And Adults The Inpp Screening Test For Clinicians And Health Profe I can get now!

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

It's very easy to get quality ebooks )

so many fake sites. this is the first one which worked! Many thanks

wtffff i do not understand this!

Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.


INPP Neuromotor Immaturity - Psychology

Educational policy by successive governments has increasingly been driven by aiming at outcomes rather than seeking to understand the processes of how children learn.

New research confirms that there are wide differences in children’s physical readiness for learning and suggests that more detailed attention should be given to the physical foundations for learning in the pre-school and school years.

Healthy babies, born at full term are equipped with a set of primitive reflexes, which support survival in the first months of life. Examples of primitive reflexes include the rooting and sucking reflexes, which facilitate feeding the palmar grasp reflex and other reflexes which respond directly to stimulation of the balance mechanism.

As connections to higher centres in the brain develop during the first six months of post-natal life, these early primitive reflexes are inhibited and/or transformed into postural reactions, which provide the foundations for subconscious control of posture (needed to sit still), balance (needed to provide a stable base for eye movements involved in reading, writing and copying) and coordination (the medium of expression in the classroom). In neurological terms, the process of early reflex integration consists of transition from brain stem reflex response to cortically controlled response.

If primitive reflexes are retained beyond the first year of life or postural reactions do not develop fully, they provide markers of immaturity in the functioning of the central nervous system, can interfere with natural development and contribute to later difficulties with psychomotor development affecting social skills and educational performance.Numerous earlier studies have pointed to a relationship between residual primitive reflexes and educational under-achievement .

In 1996, based on a method originally devised at The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP), a screening test and school intervention programme was developed to enable teachers to identify signs of immaturity in psychomotor development, which might undermine school performance . Following extensive evaluation, the screening test and school intervention programme was published in 2012 followed by a screening test for clinicians and health practitioners in 2014.

New Research

New research carried out in Poland in 2016 and 2017 suggests that these screening tools should be more widely used by professionals involved in child development and education to help identify children who show signs of neuromotor immaturity (NMI) and who would benefit from physical intervention programmes to minimize the influence of developmental disorders on educational achievement.

The first study involving 135 children (64 boys and 71 girls) in two age groups: 4-6 years (pre-school group) and 7 – 9 years (school age group), revealed that despite the theory that primitive reflexes are naturally inhibited in the first six months of life, they can and do persist in the general population. The authors commented that, “the study shows that spontaneous integration of reflexes is fuller in school age children than in pre-school children” and that “the introduction of screening and treatment of reflex integration at the stage of preschool and early childhood may be a part of the prevention of developmental disorders”. They also commented that wider population studies are recommended to define more accurate age standard for integration.

A second study by the same team involving 35 pre-school children assessed using both the INPP Screening Test(10) and the Motor Proficiency Test showed that the greater the severity of the reflex(es), the lower the motor proficiency. The authors concluded that, “it seems reasonable to introduce reflex integration therapy in children with low psychomotor skills. Primitive reflexes routinely tested, can contribute to improved early psychomotor development in children with needs, thus preventing many difficulties which children can encounter within their social and school life”.

Further Reading

Abstracts of this new research in English may be found by following the links to references 12 and 13 in the article or:

For further information about the screening test, intervention programme and training courses: https://www.inpp.org.uk

References:
  1. Gustafsson D, 1971. A comparison of basic reflexes with the subtests of the Purdue-Perceptual-Motor Survey. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Kansas.
  2. Bender ML. 1976.Bender-Purdue Reflex Test and Training Manual. San Rafael, CA. Academic Publications.
  3. Rider B, 1976. Relationship of postural reflexes to learning disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 26/5:239-243.
  4. McPhillips M & Sheehy N, 2004. Prevalence of persistent primary reflexes and motor problems in children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia 10/4:316-338 5.
  5. Goddard Blythe SA, 2001. Neurological dysfunction as a significant factor in children diagnosed with dyslexia. Proceedings of The 5th International British Dyslexia Association Conference. University of York. April 2001.
  6. Taylor M et al. 2004. Primitive reflexes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education.19/1:23-37.
  7. Goddard Blythe SA, 1996. The INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools with Children with Special Needs. Chester. INPP Ltd. Restricted Publication
  8. North Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB) 2004. An evaluation of the pilot INPP movement programme in primary schools in the North Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB), Northern Ireland. Final Report. Prepared by Brainbox Research Ltd for the NEELB. www.neeelb.org.uk.
  9. Releasing educational potential through movement. A summary of individual studies carried out using the INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools with Children with Special Needs. Child Care in Practice.11/4:415-432.
  10. Assessing neuromotor readiness for learning. The INPP screening test and school intervention programme. Chichester. Wiley-Blackwell
  11. Goddard Blythe SA, 2014. Neuromotor immaturity in children and adults. The INPP screening test for clinicians and health practitioners. Chichester. Wiley-Blackwell.
  12. Gieysztor E, Sadowska L, Choińska AM, 2017. The degree of primitive reflexes integration as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological maturity of healthy pre-school and early school age children. Journal of Public Nursing and Public Health. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
  13. Gieysztor E, Choińska AM, Paprocka-Borowicz M, 2016. Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated motor problems in healthy pre-school children. Archives of Medical Science. https://doi.org/10.5114/acms.2016.60503

Videos

Top reviews from the United States

I own three books by Sally Goddard Blythe: this one, Reflexes, Learning, and Behavior, and Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. I will be reviewing all three books, since I spent a lot of time trying to figure out which book would help me. Since they are not inexpensive, perhaps I can save someone a bit of money and time.

This is the third book I have purchased by this author, and I like it the least of the three I own. When I first learned that this book was being published (August 2014), I was excited about it because I have found few books that address retained reflexes in adults.

When it arrived, I spent a lot of time comparing the content of it to the other two Goddard Blythe books I mentioned above. I was *quite* disappointed to discover that MUCH of the material in this book was word for word content from her book Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. In this book, there are tests to check for retained primitive reflexes in children and adults. The adult testing section appeared to be almost exactly the same content as the tests for children above the age of seven in the Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning text.

Needless to say, I felt like I had been cheated out of good money because so much of the material in this "new" book was verbatim from her other books. Even at the discounted Amazon price of $85 (publisher price is $95), the duplicate content in this book made this book ridiculously overpriced.

So why did I keep the book? It had new material that was useful enough that I thought I should keep it. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning focused on three reflexes, while this book focused on four reflexes. (It added content on the Moro Reflex). It also had photographs of the initial testing position and position after testing, which was an improvement on the stick figures in the testing section in Reflexes, Learning, and Behavior. (I do wish, though, that the photographs were bigger, in color, and clearer.) Also, this book had new information on the vestibular system, which I don't believe is in the other two books mentioned above.

If my local library had this book available, I would have returned it for a refund. But, as I said, there was just enough new information for me to want it on my shelf.

I hope you found my review helpful, and please see my other reviews on the two books mentioned above.


About the Author

Sally Goddard Blythe is International Director of The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP) in Chester, UK. She is the author of seven books on child development, including Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning: The INPP Developmental Screening Test and School Intervention Programme (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), The Genius of Natural Childhood (2011), and Attention, Balance and Coordination: The A.B.C. of Learning Success (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).


1.2 Rationale for Screening and Remediation of Neuromotor Immaturity 2

1.4 The INPP Developmental Movement Programme for Schools 3

1.5 What is Neuromotor Immaturity? 4

1.6 What is the Significance of Primitive Reflexes to Education? 4

1.7 What are Primitive Reflexes? 5

1.8 What is the Significance of Neuromotor Maturity to Education? 5

1.9 What is the Purpose of Developmental Screening Tests? 7

1.10 Why Assess Posture and Balance? 7

1.11 Why Carry Out Assessments for Balance? 8

1.12 What is the Difference Between Static Balance and Dynamic Balance? 8

1.13 What is the Significance of Postural Control to Learning? 9

1.14 Primitive Reflexes: Why Have These Three Reflexes Been Selected for Evaluation? 9

1.14.1 The Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 9

1.14.2 The Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 10

1.14.3 The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) 12

1.15 What Evidence is There Linking Balance, Posture and Reflexes to Educational Achievement? 12

1.16 What Evidence is There That Intervention in the Form of Movement Programmes Aimed at the Level of Primitive Reflexes Improves Educational Outcomes? 15

1.17 How to Use The Screening Tests 16

2 Developmental Screening Tests for Use with Children Aged 4𔃅 Years 20

2.1 General instructions 20

2.2.3 The Crawling on Hands and Knees Test 24

2.2.4 Crossing the Midline, Test No. 1 25

2.2.5 Crossing the Midline, Test No. 2 26

2.2.6 Finger and Thumb Opposition Test 27

2.3 Tests for Primitive Reflexes 29

2.3.1 Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 29

2.3.2 The Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 31

2.3.3 Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) – Erect Test 32

2.4 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 34

2.4.1 Pencil and Paper Tasks 35

2.4.2 Additional Measures 37

2.5 Score Sheets for 4𔃅 Year Old Test 39

2.7 Interpreting the Scores 41

2.7.1 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination, Balance and Reflexes 41

2.7.2 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 41

3 Developmental Screening Tests for Use with Children from 7 Years of Age 43

3.1 General Instructions 43

3.2 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination and Balance 44

3.2.2 Walking on the Outsides of the Feet (Fog Test) 46

3.3 Tests for Aberrant Primitive Reflexes 47

3.3.1 The Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 47

3.3.2 Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 51

3.3.3 The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) 52

3.4 Tests for Oculomotor Functioning 53

3.4.1 Test for Fixation, Convergence and Control of Saccades (Valett) 54

3.4.2 Test for Visual Integration 54

3.5 Tests for Visual-Speech Recognition 55

3.5.1 Sound Discrimination (Individual Sounds, Sound Blends and Syllables) 55

3.6 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 56

3.6.2 Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) 57

3.6.3 Spatial Difficulties 59

3.6.4 The Tansley Standard Visual Figures Test 59

3.6.5 Figures Based on The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test 59

3.6.6 Scoring the Visual-Perceptual Tests 61

3.6.7 Additional Measures 65

3.7 Score Sheets (7þ Test) 66

3.8 Observation Sheets (7þ Test) 67

3.9 How to Interpret The Scores 68

3.9.1 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination, Balance and Reflexes 68

3.9.2 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 68

3.9.3 Tests for Auditory–Speech Recognition 68

4 The INPP Developmental Movement Programme 70

4.1 How to use the INPP Developmental Movement Programme 70

4.1.1 Developmental Movements 71

4.1.2 Why Use a Movement Programme to Improve Educational Performance? 71


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ISBN 13: 9781118736968

Blythe, Sally Goddard

This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Available to healthcare professionals for the first time, this book contains proven screening tests to measure neuromotor immaturity in children and adults in order to provide a basis for referral and help.

  • Allows practitioners to screen for disorders of movement that can negatively affect educational performance and emotional function in children and adolescents
  • Assesses instances where disorders of movement in adults are affecting thoughts and behavior, as in panic disorder
  • Provides a novel approach for health care professionals observing aberrant reflexes in the absence of more serious pathology
  • Includes reproducible scoring and observation sheets for practice and serves as the perfect complement to Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

Undiagnosed neuromotor immaturity is increasingly being held responsible for a broad range of symptoms, including anxiety, behavioral disorders, and learning difficulties. Available to healthcare professionals for the first time, this book contains proven screening tests to measure neuromotor immaturity in children and adults in order to provide a basis for referral and help. Based on the pioneering work of Sally Goddard Blythe and the Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology, it provides reproducible scoring and observation sheets for use in practice.

The screening tests allow healthcare practitioners to assess disorders of movement that can negatively affect educational performance and emotional function in children and adolescents, as well as the thoughts and behavior of adults. It is a novel approach for healthcare professionals who observe aberrant reflexes in their patients in the absence of more serious pathology. The perfect complement to Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning, these tests makes new resources and information available to patients who are often overlooked by standard clinical and educational services.