Information

Is there a limit to how many skills a person can master?

Is there a limit to how many skills a person can master?

Given that the different parts of our brain are constantly competing for brain real estate and learning requires brain real estate, is it the case that we can only master x amount of skills due to the limit of our brain size? If we train hard enough at something is it possible that that skill can remain with us forever? If so, how much training is required before a skill can become a permanent feature in our brain?


Given that the different parts of our brain are constantly competing for brain real estate and learning requires brain real estate

Nothing competes with nothing within our brain. In fact, it's a pretty harmonious machine. Literarily.

It is just a vast network of neurons where a lot of activity happens in parallel. Unfamiliar complex tasks pose greater load on the network (meaning they require activity to spread more and be sustained for longer), and such load may spread into areas that would have done other things otherwise.

is it the case that we can only master x amount of skills due to the limit of our brain size?

Mathematically speaking:

  • To learn an infinite number of skills we would need an infinitely neuron-dense brain and infinite time.
  • If each neuron in our brain would serve as a skill (obviously you need more than one neuron for a skill, but let's just say), we could have only acquired around hundred billion skills.

Then the brain size is a poor indicator to abilities. Elephants has a brain more than 3 times the size of ours, yet they exhibit a highly limited set of skills compared to humans. It's more about how much stuff there is there, and how is it 'wired'.

If we train hard enough at something is it possible that that skill can remain with us forever?

Even if you haven't or don't train at all some skills will remain with you forever (or in most people's case, until they die). Like your skill to speak.

But generally speaking, if something becomes a 'skill' it means that it is heavily integrated in our neural network in a way that makes interpretation and execution unconscious processes.

The brain has no native conscious mechanism to forget things (although in some cases and if you know how you can exercise a mild ability to forget).

If so, how much training is required before a skill can become a permanent feature in our brain?

How long is a piece of string? It depends of what you already capable of doing, how you train, how hard the skill you try to acquire is, etc.

But if I read between the words, then basically you can master any skill you wish, so long it is realistic and you spend the time practicing it. Some people who late in their life became blind later became proficient craftsman - the brain is a wonderful machine, just waiting for you to explore and utilise it.


Given that mastering a skill is often regarded to take 10,000 hours of practice, if you assume 10 hours a day that would be of the order of three years per skill - and assuming a 75 year life span (just to keep the maths easy) would imply the answer's about 25 skills wouldn't it?


What Does Liberal Arts Mean?

Liberal arts is a broad term that can be used to encompass everything from theater arts to economics. Some popular majors include:

As a discipline, these subjects are intended to give you general knowledge and the ability to think critically and learn any subject &ndash as opposed to specific skills needed for a technical profession. Instead, liberal arts sharpen your research, writing and critical thinking skills to prepare you for a broad range of careers.

As to what you can do with a degree in liberal arts, the benefits go far beyond the specific subject knowledge from a particular degree. When it's time to enter the job market, liberal arts majors have a huge array of possibilities available to them, including many in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and business.


What Happens If You Hit Federal Loan Limits?

If your cost of attendance exceeds what you can borrow in federal student loans, you may not have enough cash on hand to cover the extra costs. If you’re worried about not having enough money to pay for school, you have a few options, including:

Working part-time. Find a job that lets you work non-traditional hours so you can pay for school. You can look on- or off-campus, depending on your living situation and transportation options. Consider a side-hustle—like delivering groceries, tutoring or freelancing—to cover your extra schooling costs.

Requesting payment assistance. Many schools require payment in full, whether that comes from your lender or you. If you can’t pay your outstanding bill, talk to your school’s financial aid office about a payment plan, like making monthly payments instead of one lump-sum payment. Also inquire about emergency grants or interest-free loans, which vary by school but might be available based on your need.

Switching schools. Cost of attendance varies by each school. Since every institution has different service fees, you might pay more at a private or big-name school compared to community colleges, which tend to have fewer fees. If you can, consider attending local colleges for the first couple years and then transferring to your school of choice to complete your bachelor’s degree.

Using private student loans. If you’ve exhausted all your federal borrowing options, you may want to look into using private student loans. These are available through banks, credit unions and online lenders and usually require a credit check for approval. If you don’t have a strong enough credit standing on your own, you may need to enlist the help of a co-signer—like a parent—to help you qualify or get a lower interest rate. How much you can borrow is partly based on your credit score.

Tapping into family resources. If you can, ask relatives if they can pitch in to help pay for school. This includes getting a loan from a loved one or having them make tuition payments on your behalf. While not every family can afford the extra cost, you may have some relatives that can give you a little extra money so you can avoid borrowing more in loans.

Private Student Loan Limits

Since private student loans are offered by many different lenders, there is no general limit to how much you can borrow. Banks, credit unions and online lenders all have their own criteria. This means you’ll need to compare lenders, interest rates and repayment terms before applying for a private student loan.

Your private student loan limit is based on your creditworthiness and sometimes your chosen degree. Many lenders will approve you for your entire cost of attendance, while others have a lifetime loan amount you can borrow, similar to federal student loan limits.


Highlight Your Skills

While there are skills you should avoid putting on your resume, there are a number of skills you should include.

Focus on the skills that show why you’re qualified for the jobs you're seeking. You can include your top skills in a separate “Skills” section and work them into the job descriptions you write for the positions you’ve held. You can also incorporate them into your resume’s summary statement, if you have one.

Before you submit your resume to apply for a job, take the time to review and refresh your resume so that it's going to give you the best opportunity to get the interview.

In particular, tailor the skill words you include to match the requirements of the job.


How Many Languages is it Possible to Know?

There are millions of people, even in the mostly monolingual US, who speak more than one language at home. Competence in three languages is not unusual, and we've all heard stories of grandmas and grandpas who had to master four or five languages on their way from the old country to the new. In India it is common for people to go about their business every day using five or six different languages. But what about 10, 20, 30, 100 languages? What's the upper limit on the number of languages a person can know?

Michael Erard, in his fascinating book Babel No More, travels around the world in search of hyperpolyglots, people who study and learn large numbers of languages. He sheds light on the secrets of their success, and explains why it can be hard to put an exact number on language knowledge. Here are some of the hyperpolyglots he meets:

Graham Cansdale, 14 languages.
Cansdale uses all 14 languages professionally as a translator at the European Commission in Brussels. He has studied more languages.

Lomb Kató, 16 languages.
This Hungarian polyglot said five of these "lived inside" her. Five others needed at least a half day of review in order to be reactivated, and with the six remaining she could do translation. Confidence, she claimed, was crucial to language learning. Her study tip: "Be firmly convinced you are a linguistic genius."

Alexander Arguelles, 20 languages or so.
Arguelles declines to say the exact number. "If someone tells you how many languages they speak, then you shouldn't trust them," he says. He has studied more than 60 languages and devotes 9 hours of study every day to them. Twenty is the number of them in which he has reading competence.

Johan Vandewalle, 22 languages.
In 1987, Vandewalle won the Polyglot of Flanders contest, where he was tested in 22 languages (though he has studied more). The contest required 10 minute conversations with native speakers, with 5 minute breaks in between.

Ken Hale, 50 languages.
The famous MIT linguist said he could "speak" only three languages (English, Spanish, Warlpiri), and could merely "talk in" others. He considered the ability to speak a language to include knowing all its cultural implications. He didn't like people perpetuating the "myth" of his language feats, though many colleagues had observed him do things like study a grammar of Finnish on an airplane and start speaking it easily upon arrival.

Emil Krebs, 32 to 68 languages.
The number depends on who's counting. A German diplomat who worked in China, Krebs had such an unusual talent for languages that after his death his brain was preserved for study.

Cardinal Giuseppe Mezzofanti, 40 to 72 languages.
One of his biographers broke it down as follows: he had 14 which he had studied but not used, 11 in which he could have a conversation, 9 which he spoke not quite perfectly but with a perfect accent, and 30 languages (from 11 different language families) which he had totally mastered.

Stories of Mezzofanti's language prowess are so legendary, they may be merely legends. But it is clear from Erard's time among the hyperpolyglots that with the right kind of natural talent, motivation, and hard work, remarkable feats can be accomplished. The psycholinguists Erard talked to said there was "no theoretical limit to the number of languages one could learn." There was only the limitation of time.

But most of the hyperpolyglots themselves were reluctant to claim too many, even when they had studied dozens. This is because they have a finer definition of "knowing" a language than most people, and the humility that comes from becoming an expert: The more you know, the more you know what you don't know. Among the hyperpolyglots, 15 seems to be about the high end when it comes to the number of languages they are willing to vouch for in themselves. Even so, the 30 or so other languages with which they may have some lesser familiarity are probably still better than your high school Spanish.


10,000 Hours May Not Make a Master After All

Related

There are many roads to greatness, but logging 10,000 hours of practice to help you perfect a skill may not be sufficient.

Based on research suggesting that practice is the essence of genius, best-selling author Malcolm Gladwell popularized the idea that 10,000 hours of appropriately guided practice was “the magic number of greatness,” regardless of a person’s natural aptitude. With enough practice, he claimed in his book Outliers, anyone could achieve a level of proficiency that would rival that of a professional. It was just a matter of putting in the time.

But in the years since Gladwell first pushed the 󈫺,000-hours rule,” researchers have engaged in a spirited debate over what that rule entails. It’s clear that not just any practice, but only dedicated and intensive honing of skills that counts. And is there magic in that 10,000th hour?

In an attempt to answer some of these questions, and to delve further into how practice leads to mastery, Zach Hambrick, associate professor of psychology at Michigan State University, and his colleagues decided to study musicians and chess players. It helps that both skills are amenable to such analysis because players can be ranked almost objectively. So in their research, which was published in the journal Intelligence, they reanalyzed data from 14 studies of top chess players and musicians. They found that for musicians, only 30% of the variance in their rankings as performers could be accounted for by how much time they spent practicing. For chess players, practice only accounted for 34% of what determined the rank of a master player.

“We looked at the two most widely studied domains of expertise research: chess and music,” says Hambrick. “It’s clear from this data that deliberate practice doesn’t account for all, nearly all or even most of the variance in performance in chess and music.” Two-thirds of the difference, in fact, was unrelated to practice. And while one player took two years to become a grandmaster another achieved that level only after 26 years, giving them huge variance in the hours of practice they did.

How did Hambrick come up with the percentages? He and his colleagues simply correlated the relationships between reported practice and rankings — and determined how much of the difference among performers related to practice hours. The research did not investigate the other factors involved in determining success.

So do the results suggest that the untalented among us are doomed to mediocrity? Fortunately, not everyone believes we should be so quick to discount the value of practice. Not surprisingly, K. Anders Ericsson, professor of psychology at Florida State University, whose research originally characterized the “10,000 hour” rule, says the studies Hambrick and his colleagues included did not measure practice time appropriately, in part because people often remember it inaccurately. “None of the reported relations proves that deliberate practice could not explain all of the variance,” he says. “With better research using daily practice diaries during the entire development of music and chess performance, we might find that individual differences in the amount and timing of deliberate practice [do] not account for all observed variance, but current data cannot claim to show that.”

Ericsson doesn’t deny that genetic limitations, such as those on height and body size, can constrain expert performance in areas like athletics — and his research has shown this. However, he believes there is no good evidence so far that proves that genetic factors related to intelligence or other brain attributes matter when it comes to less physically driven pursuits.

“I prefer to wait for future studies that show what the detailed training factors and the detailed genetic factors are,” he says, adding that he has seen no convincing evidence that brain-related genes put an absolute limit on expert performance.

Scott Barry Kaufman, assistant professor of psychology at New York University, says the debate is really one over priority innate talent invariably plays a role in proficiency, but so does training to hone that talent. “The field needs to move beyond such simplistic questions as ‘Is it practice or talent?’ and needs to look at the whole wide range of personal characteristics involved,” he says.

Hambrick’s earlier research, for example, found that working memory — how much information you can hold — accounts for 7% of the variation in sight-reading when playing piano. “Practice, of course, is important, but is it what separates the best from rest? This is evidence that general ability factors are at least part of it,” he says.

But Kaufman notes that practice accounted for more than four times as much variance as working memory. “Let’s not lose sight of the fact that practice accounted for [roughly] 30% of the variance,” he says. “By scientific standards, that’s an extraordinary amount to capture.” So whether you view the data as suggesting that practice is less important because it only accounts for one-third of the variability in proficiency, or more important because it explains more than any other factor discovered so far, is a matter of perspective.

And, to make things even more complicated, working memory itself can be enhanced by practice — and it’s extremely difficult to tell how much a passion for a pursuit like music is influenced by environmental factors such as parental encouragement or an existing tendency to persevere. Prodigies, for example, share with autistic people a tendency to have intense focus and high tolerance for repetition — both factors that encourage practice but are linked to genetic factors.

Hambrick says his goal in conducting the research was to expose some of the complexities of the interaction between practice and proficiency, and with his latest results, he hopes to fight unrealistic expectations fostered by theories like the “10,000-hour rule.” He says his research does not support “the egalitarian view that anyone who is sufficiently motivated can become an expert.” However, “the silver lining here is that if people are given an accurate idea of their abilities, they can select activities where they actually have a realistic chance of becoming expert through deliberate practice.”

Ericsson disagrees, insisting that there is no evidence — outside of obvious physical limitations — for significant constraints. But Kaufman takes the middle ground. “Everyone can’t be a genius in everything,” he says. “But I’m coming around to the idea that every single person has the potential for genius in something.”


Manage your time wisely.

There will probably never be a time in your life when you aren't juggling multiple personal and professional priorities. Time-management skills are a must, unless you want to feel constantly frazzled.

Perhaps the most important time-management lesson is that you should stick with one task at a time. Research suggests that multitasking is generally counterproductive, because the brain expends energy as it readjusts its focus from one activity to another.

You'd be wise, too, to limit the hours you spend working. Decades ago, Henry Ford discovered that productivity started to decline after employees logged more than 40 hours per week. Other research suggests that, after three weeks, 60-hour workweeks become less productive.


5 Types of Social Skills Deficit

There are many reasons why a person may have a social skills deficit. It could occur because of a lack of knowledge, such as the inability to acquire new skills, or because of a competency deficit. Sometimes, the person may know how to perform the social skill, but they may struggle to perform because of limited practice or inadequate feedback. There may also be internal or external factors that interfere with the person performing the social skill, such as anxiety or chaotic surroundings. Here are five common types of social skills deficits.

Basic Communication Skills

These include the ability to listen, follow directions and refrain from speaking. For example, listening skills involve the abilities of concentration and ignoring distractions. Good listening skills are demonstrated through indicating attention, such as nodding and smiling, and giving feedback on what has been said or discussed. It also includes the ability to refer to past comments, such as tying a current statement to a previous one, or query about potential, future ideas, actions and events. Basic communication skills include body language and behaviors, like eye contact, physical stillness and emotional attentiveness while the other person is talking.

Empathy and Rapport Skills

Certain cognitive, behavioral and mental health conditions may limit an individual’s ability to feel empathy and connect with others. This includes Autism, which comes with documented social impairments, and Borderline Personality Disorder. Those who suffer from severe social anxiety and those who are highly self-conscious may display either too little or too much focus on someone else. This means that some people with anxiety are desperate to please others and avoid confrontation, so they will pay close attention to what others say, or always volunteer to help or do favors. Opposite of this, some people will feel overwhelmed by their social environment and simply shut down around others.

Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills include the abilities of sharing, joining activities, asking for permission and waiting turns. Those who have a social skill deficit may struggle with asking accurate and concise questions. Being unable to ask a simple question creates barriers to obtaining information and initiating a conversation. Those who struggle to ask questions will appear disinterested and even anti-social. Those with poor social skills may prefer to ask closed questions because these elicit brief and controlled responses. For adults with limited social skills, they may struggle to understand proper manners in different social contexts and settings.

Problem Solving Skills

Problem solving involves asking for help, apologizing to others, deciding what to do and accepting consequences. Some people may struggle to identify the root causes of problems, so they can’t fully understood potential solutions or strategies. Those who struggle with solving problems may be morbidly shy or clinically introverted. They may prefer to avoid problems because it makes them feel uncomfortable. Those who struggle with solving problems will most likely have poor conflict resolution skills. Some children struggle to appropriately deal with teasing, while some adults have difficulties dealing with losing to competition.

Accountability

Some people are petrified of being criticized in public. They may struggle with accepting blame for problems or dealing with constructive feedback. Some people naturally associate accountability with reliability and maturity. Someone who promises to do something and then fails to do it may have a legitimate excuse, but their overt lack of accountability may indicate that they are unreliable and immature. Accountability is also an essential part of conflict management because recognizing mistakes are an excellent way to indicate a conciliatory and cooperative attitude.

Those who want to improve their social skills should focus on imitating desirable attitudes and eliminating undesirable behaviors. They can use modeling, role-playing and performance feedback to improve their specific social skills deficit.


5. Mastering Body Language

According to research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), people consider information from body language over facial expressions when perceiving emotions. [4] This study effectively proves that you can get your message across to people more firmly if you use the right body language. That makes this one of the most important skills to learn.

Now, &ldquobody language&rdquo itself is quite an extensive subject involving gestures, eye contact, body posture and much more.

To master your own, try out these 11 body language tricks. Bear in mind that body language doesn&rsquot improve overnight. In fact, it&rsquos a subconscious change that occurs over the course of months.


Surprising psychology myths and the science behind them

Much of what you know about psychology may be a lie. Over the last several decades, there was a rise of dozens of myths. These gave people a false sense of understanding about how their brains operate and how to interpret other people’s behaviors.

Here, our goal is to teach the true science that drives our thoughts and behaviors. So, we decided to conquer three popular myths and explain the science behind why they’re false.

People are creative when they brainstorm in groups

The myth

Today’s business world is more eager than ever to promote collaboration. However, it bases solely on the popular belief multiple heads are better than one. We do benefit from getting feedback and learning from one another. But it’s a myth that groups can brainstorm more and better ideas than individuals.

The science

According to the American Institute of Graphic Arts, and many other researchers, group brainstorming sessions are the exact opposite. Above all, they limit creativity instead of enhancing it.

Opposites attract and make better partners

The myth

It’s a myth that when dating, you’re likely to be attracted to people who are very different from you. The main reason why this myth is so popular is that people believe the false logic. Certainly, they believe potential partners with opposite traits attract us as they’ll create a balanced relationship.

The science

In contrast, research shows the opposite is true. We’re drawn to potential partners who are similar to us. Not only that, but similarity indicates long-term relationship success. In fact, similar people typically agree on more things, sharing the same communication preferences.


Highlight Your Skills

While there are skills you should avoid putting on your resume, there are a number of skills you should include.

Focus on the skills that show why you’re qualified for the jobs you're seeking. You can include your top skills in a separate “Skills” section and work them into the job descriptions you write for the positions you’ve held. You can also incorporate them into your resume’s summary statement, if you have one.

Before you submit your resume to apply for a job, take the time to review and refresh your resume so that it's going to give you the best opportunity to get the interview.

In particular, tailor the skill words you include to match the requirements of the job.


5. Mastering Body Language

According to research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), people consider information from body language over facial expressions when perceiving emotions. [4] This study effectively proves that you can get your message across to people more firmly if you use the right body language. That makes this one of the most important skills to learn.

Now, &ldquobody language&rdquo itself is quite an extensive subject involving gestures, eye contact, body posture and much more.

To master your own, try out these 11 body language tricks. Bear in mind that body language doesn&rsquot improve overnight. In fact, it&rsquos a subconscious change that occurs over the course of months.


10,000 Hours May Not Make a Master After All

Related

There are many roads to greatness, but logging 10,000 hours of practice to help you perfect a skill may not be sufficient.

Based on research suggesting that practice is the essence of genius, best-selling author Malcolm Gladwell popularized the idea that 10,000 hours of appropriately guided practice was “the magic number of greatness,” regardless of a person’s natural aptitude. With enough practice, he claimed in his book Outliers, anyone could achieve a level of proficiency that would rival that of a professional. It was just a matter of putting in the time.

But in the years since Gladwell first pushed the 󈫺,000-hours rule,” researchers have engaged in a spirited debate over what that rule entails. It’s clear that not just any practice, but only dedicated and intensive honing of skills that counts. And is there magic in that 10,000th hour?

In an attempt to answer some of these questions, and to delve further into how practice leads to mastery, Zach Hambrick, associate professor of psychology at Michigan State University, and his colleagues decided to study musicians and chess players. It helps that both skills are amenable to such analysis because players can be ranked almost objectively. So in their research, which was published in the journal Intelligence, they reanalyzed data from 14 studies of top chess players and musicians. They found that for musicians, only 30% of the variance in their rankings as performers could be accounted for by how much time they spent practicing. For chess players, practice only accounted for 34% of what determined the rank of a master player.

“We looked at the two most widely studied domains of expertise research: chess and music,” says Hambrick. “It’s clear from this data that deliberate practice doesn’t account for all, nearly all or even most of the variance in performance in chess and music.” Two-thirds of the difference, in fact, was unrelated to practice. And while one player took two years to become a grandmaster another achieved that level only after 26 years, giving them huge variance in the hours of practice they did.

How did Hambrick come up with the percentages? He and his colleagues simply correlated the relationships between reported practice and rankings — and determined how much of the difference among performers related to practice hours. The research did not investigate the other factors involved in determining success.

So do the results suggest that the untalented among us are doomed to mediocrity? Fortunately, not everyone believes we should be so quick to discount the value of practice. Not surprisingly, K. Anders Ericsson, professor of psychology at Florida State University, whose research originally characterized the “10,000 hour” rule, says the studies Hambrick and his colleagues included did not measure practice time appropriately, in part because people often remember it inaccurately. “None of the reported relations proves that deliberate practice could not explain all of the variance,” he says. “With better research using daily practice diaries during the entire development of music and chess performance, we might find that individual differences in the amount and timing of deliberate practice [do] not account for all observed variance, but current data cannot claim to show that.”

Ericsson doesn’t deny that genetic limitations, such as those on height and body size, can constrain expert performance in areas like athletics — and his research has shown this. However, he believes there is no good evidence so far that proves that genetic factors related to intelligence or other brain attributes matter when it comes to less physically driven pursuits.

“I prefer to wait for future studies that show what the detailed training factors and the detailed genetic factors are,” he says, adding that he has seen no convincing evidence that brain-related genes put an absolute limit on expert performance.

Scott Barry Kaufman, assistant professor of psychology at New York University, says the debate is really one over priority innate talent invariably plays a role in proficiency, but so does training to hone that talent. “The field needs to move beyond such simplistic questions as ‘Is it practice or talent?’ and needs to look at the whole wide range of personal characteristics involved,” he says.

Hambrick’s earlier research, for example, found that working memory — how much information you can hold — accounts for 7% of the variation in sight-reading when playing piano. “Practice, of course, is important, but is it what separates the best from rest? This is evidence that general ability factors are at least part of it,” he says.

But Kaufman notes that practice accounted for more than four times as much variance as working memory. “Let’s not lose sight of the fact that practice accounted for [roughly] 30% of the variance,” he says. “By scientific standards, that’s an extraordinary amount to capture.” So whether you view the data as suggesting that practice is less important because it only accounts for one-third of the variability in proficiency, or more important because it explains more than any other factor discovered so far, is a matter of perspective.

And, to make things even more complicated, working memory itself can be enhanced by practice — and it’s extremely difficult to tell how much a passion for a pursuit like music is influenced by environmental factors such as parental encouragement or an existing tendency to persevere. Prodigies, for example, share with autistic people a tendency to have intense focus and high tolerance for repetition — both factors that encourage practice but are linked to genetic factors.

Hambrick says his goal in conducting the research was to expose some of the complexities of the interaction between practice and proficiency, and with his latest results, he hopes to fight unrealistic expectations fostered by theories like the “10,000-hour rule.” He says his research does not support “the egalitarian view that anyone who is sufficiently motivated can become an expert.” However, “the silver lining here is that if people are given an accurate idea of their abilities, they can select activities where they actually have a realistic chance of becoming expert through deliberate practice.”

Ericsson disagrees, insisting that there is no evidence — outside of obvious physical limitations — for significant constraints. But Kaufman takes the middle ground. “Everyone can’t be a genius in everything,” he says. “But I’m coming around to the idea that every single person has the potential for genius in something.”


5 Types of Social Skills Deficit

There are many reasons why a person may have a social skills deficit. It could occur because of a lack of knowledge, such as the inability to acquire new skills, or because of a competency deficit. Sometimes, the person may know how to perform the social skill, but they may struggle to perform because of limited practice or inadequate feedback. There may also be internal or external factors that interfere with the person performing the social skill, such as anxiety or chaotic surroundings. Here are five common types of social skills deficits.

Basic Communication Skills

These include the ability to listen, follow directions and refrain from speaking. For example, listening skills involve the abilities of concentration and ignoring distractions. Good listening skills are demonstrated through indicating attention, such as nodding and smiling, and giving feedback on what has been said or discussed. It also includes the ability to refer to past comments, such as tying a current statement to a previous one, or query about potential, future ideas, actions and events. Basic communication skills include body language and behaviors, like eye contact, physical stillness and emotional attentiveness while the other person is talking.

Empathy and Rapport Skills

Certain cognitive, behavioral and mental health conditions may limit an individual’s ability to feel empathy and connect with others. This includes Autism, which comes with documented social impairments, and Borderline Personality Disorder. Those who suffer from severe social anxiety and those who are highly self-conscious may display either too little or too much focus on someone else. This means that some people with anxiety are desperate to please others and avoid confrontation, so they will pay close attention to what others say, or always volunteer to help or do favors. Opposite of this, some people will feel overwhelmed by their social environment and simply shut down around others.

Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills include the abilities of sharing, joining activities, asking for permission and waiting turns. Those who have a social skill deficit may struggle with asking accurate and concise questions. Being unable to ask a simple question creates barriers to obtaining information and initiating a conversation. Those who struggle to ask questions will appear disinterested and even anti-social. Those with poor social skills may prefer to ask closed questions because these elicit brief and controlled responses. For adults with limited social skills, they may struggle to understand proper manners in different social contexts and settings.

Problem Solving Skills

Problem solving involves asking for help, apologizing to others, deciding what to do and accepting consequences. Some people may struggle to identify the root causes of problems, so they can’t fully understood potential solutions or strategies. Those who struggle with solving problems may be morbidly shy or clinically introverted. They may prefer to avoid problems because it makes them feel uncomfortable. Those who struggle with solving problems will most likely have poor conflict resolution skills. Some children struggle to appropriately deal with teasing, while some adults have difficulties dealing with losing to competition.

Accountability

Some people are petrified of being criticized in public. They may struggle with accepting blame for problems or dealing with constructive feedback. Some people naturally associate accountability with reliability and maturity. Someone who promises to do something and then fails to do it may have a legitimate excuse, but their overt lack of accountability may indicate that they are unreliable and immature. Accountability is also an essential part of conflict management because recognizing mistakes are an excellent way to indicate a conciliatory and cooperative attitude.

Those who want to improve their social skills should focus on imitating desirable attitudes and eliminating undesirable behaviors. They can use modeling, role-playing and performance feedback to improve their specific social skills deficit.


Manage your time wisely.

There will probably never be a time in your life when you aren't juggling multiple personal and professional priorities. Time-management skills are a must, unless you want to feel constantly frazzled.

Perhaps the most important time-management lesson is that you should stick with one task at a time. Research suggests that multitasking is generally counterproductive, because the brain expends energy as it readjusts its focus from one activity to another.

You'd be wise, too, to limit the hours you spend working. Decades ago, Henry Ford discovered that productivity started to decline after employees logged more than 40 hours per week. Other research suggests that, after three weeks, 60-hour workweeks become less productive.


Surprising psychology myths and the science behind them

Much of what you know about psychology may be a lie. Over the last several decades, there was a rise of dozens of myths. These gave people a false sense of understanding about how their brains operate and how to interpret other people’s behaviors.

Here, our goal is to teach the true science that drives our thoughts and behaviors. So, we decided to conquer three popular myths and explain the science behind why they’re false.

People are creative when they brainstorm in groups

The myth

Today’s business world is more eager than ever to promote collaboration. However, it bases solely on the popular belief multiple heads are better than one. We do benefit from getting feedback and learning from one another. But it’s a myth that groups can brainstorm more and better ideas than individuals.

The science

According to the American Institute of Graphic Arts, and many other researchers, group brainstorming sessions are the exact opposite. Above all, they limit creativity instead of enhancing it.

Opposites attract and make better partners

The myth

It’s a myth that when dating, you’re likely to be attracted to people who are very different from you. The main reason why this myth is so popular is that people believe the false logic. Certainly, they believe potential partners with opposite traits attract us as they’ll create a balanced relationship.

The science

In contrast, research shows the opposite is true. We’re drawn to potential partners who are similar to us. Not only that, but similarity indicates long-term relationship success. In fact, similar people typically agree on more things, sharing the same communication preferences.


What Happens If You Hit Federal Loan Limits?

If your cost of attendance exceeds what you can borrow in federal student loans, you may not have enough cash on hand to cover the extra costs. If you’re worried about not having enough money to pay for school, you have a few options, including:

Working part-time. Find a job that lets you work non-traditional hours so you can pay for school. You can look on- or off-campus, depending on your living situation and transportation options. Consider a side-hustle—like delivering groceries, tutoring or freelancing—to cover your extra schooling costs.

Requesting payment assistance. Many schools require payment in full, whether that comes from your lender or you. If you can’t pay your outstanding bill, talk to your school’s financial aid office about a payment plan, like making monthly payments instead of one lump-sum payment. Also inquire about emergency grants or interest-free loans, which vary by school but might be available based on your need.

Switching schools. Cost of attendance varies by each school. Since every institution has different service fees, you might pay more at a private or big-name school compared to community colleges, which tend to have fewer fees. If you can, consider attending local colleges for the first couple years and then transferring to your school of choice to complete your bachelor’s degree.

Using private student loans. If you’ve exhausted all your federal borrowing options, you may want to look into using private student loans. These are available through banks, credit unions and online lenders and usually require a credit check for approval. If you don’t have a strong enough credit standing on your own, you may need to enlist the help of a co-signer—like a parent—to help you qualify or get a lower interest rate. How much you can borrow is partly based on your credit score.

Tapping into family resources. If you can, ask relatives if they can pitch in to help pay for school. This includes getting a loan from a loved one or having them make tuition payments on your behalf. While not every family can afford the extra cost, you may have some relatives that can give you a little extra money so you can avoid borrowing more in loans.

Private Student Loan Limits

Since private student loans are offered by many different lenders, there is no general limit to how much you can borrow. Banks, credit unions and online lenders all have their own criteria. This means you’ll need to compare lenders, interest rates and repayment terms before applying for a private student loan.

Your private student loan limit is based on your creditworthiness and sometimes your chosen degree. Many lenders will approve you for your entire cost of attendance, while others have a lifetime loan amount you can borrow, similar to federal student loan limits.


What Does Liberal Arts Mean?

Liberal arts is a broad term that can be used to encompass everything from theater arts to economics. Some popular majors include:

As a discipline, these subjects are intended to give you general knowledge and the ability to think critically and learn any subject &ndash as opposed to specific skills needed for a technical profession. Instead, liberal arts sharpen your research, writing and critical thinking skills to prepare you for a broad range of careers.

As to what you can do with a degree in liberal arts, the benefits go far beyond the specific subject knowledge from a particular degree. When it's time to enter the job market, liberal arts majors have a huge array of possibilities available to them, including many in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and business.


How Many Languages is it Possible to Know?

There are millions of people, even in the mostly monolingual US, who speak more than one language at home. Competence in three languages is not unusual, and we've all heard stories of grandmas and grandpas who had to master four or five languages on their way from the old country to the new. In India it is common for people to go about their business every day using five or six different languages. But what about 10, 20, 30, 100 languages? What's the upper limit on the number of languages a person can know?

Michael Erard, in his fascinating book Babel No More, travels around the world in search of hyperpolyglots, people who study and learn large numbers of languages. He sheds light on the secrets of their success, and explains why it can be hard to put an exact number on language knowledge. Here are some of the hyperpolyglots he meets:

Graham Cansdale, 14 languages.
Cansdale uses all 14 languages professionally as a translator at the European Commission in Brussels. He has studied more languages.

Lomb Kató, 16 languages.
This Hungarian polyglot said five of these "lived inside" her. Five others needed at least a half day of review in order to be reactivated, and with the six remaining she could do translation. Confidence, she claimed, was crucial to language learning. Her study tip: "Be firmly convinced you are a linguistic genius."

Alexander Arguelles, 20 languages or so.
Arguelles declines to say the exact number. "If someone tells you how many languages they speak, then you shouldn't trust them," he says. He has studied more than 60 languages and devotes 9 hours of study every day to them. Twenty is the number of them in which he has reading competence.

Johan Vandewalle, 22 languages.
In 1987, Vandewalle won the Polyglot of Flanders contest, where he was tested in 22 languages (though he has studied more). The contest required 10 minute conversations with native speakers, with 5 minute breaks in between.

Ken Hale, 50 languages.
The famous MIT linguist said he could "speak" only three languages (English, Spanish, Warlpiri), and could merely "talk in" others. He considered the ability to speak a language to include knowing all its cultural implications. He didn't like people perpetuating the "myth" of his language feats, though many colleagues had observed him do things like study a grammar of Finnish on an airplane and start speaking it easily upon arrival.

Emil Krebs, 32 to 68 languages.
The number depends on who's counting. A German diplomat who worked in China, Krebs had such an unusual talent for languages that after his death his brain was preserved for study.

Cardinal Giuseppe Mezzofanti, 40 to 72 languages.
One of his biographers broke it down as follows: he had 14 which he had studied but not used, 11 in which he could have a conversation, 9 which he spoke not quite perfectly but with a perfect accent, and 30 languages (from 11 different language families) which he had totally mastered.

Stories of Mezzofanti's language prowess are so legendary, they may be merely legends. But it is clear from Erard's time among the hyperpolyglots that with the right kind of natural talent, motivation, and hard work, remarkable feats can be accomplished. The psycholinguists Erard talked to said there was "no theoretical limit to the number of languages one could learn." There was only the limitation of time.

But most of the hyperpolyglots themselves were reluctant to claim too many, even when they had studied dozens. This is because they have a finer definition of "knowing" a language than most people, and the humility that comes from becoming an expert: The more you know, the more you know what you don't know. Among the hyperpolyglots, 15 seems to be about the high end when it comes to the number of languages they are willing to vouch for in themselves. Even so, the 30 or so other languages with which they may have some lesser familiarity are probably still better than your high school Spanish.


Watch the video: Οι δεξιότητες που υποστηρίζουν την επαγγελματική ανάπτυξη των εκπαιδευτικών (January 2022).