Information

Any good research on observer effect and personality tests?

Any good research on observer effect and personality tests?

I'm looking for some research on how / whether the 'observer effect' and 'observer bias' affects personality questionnaires. I recently completed the 16Personalities test, a series of questions that drops you into a list of 16 personalities and gives a horoscope-like explanation of who you are. I realised that I answered the questions based on my perception of my personality, and not necessarily what I would do. So if I think of myself as an introvert then I'm more likely to answer 'I am highly likely to feel awkward at a party.'

Then I read this article about how narcissists can sometimes masquerade as sensitive introverts - known as covert narcissists. What's to stop a covert narcissist from skewing their 16personalities answers to reflect a more pleasing view of themselves?

I think there is a bias issue with running a questionnaire in which you are both the observer and the subject, observing your own personality and giving responses that fit your perception of yourself. I was wondering whether anyone could point me to articles or research that look deeper into the observer effect in personality questionnaires.

Any help would be great!


The Whys of Social Exclusion: Insights from Behavioral Economics

All over the world, people are prevented from participating fully in society through mechanisms that go beyond the structural and institutional barriers that rational choice theory identifies (―poverty, exclusion by law or force, taste-based or statistical discrimination, and externalities from social networks differentiated by socioeconomic status). This paper discusses four additional mechanisms that can be explained by bounded rationality: (a) implicit discrimination, (b) self-stereotyping and self-censorship, (c) rules of thumb adapted to disadvantaged environments that are dysfunctional in more privileged settings, and (d) “adaptive preferences,” in which an excluded group comes to view its exclusion as natural. Institutions, if they are stable, come to have cognitive foundations—concepts, categories, social identities, and worldviews—through which people mediate their perceptions of themselves and the world around them. Abolishing or reforming a discriminatory institution may have little effect on the social categories it created groups previously discriminated against by law may remain excluded through custom and habits of the mind. Recognizing new forces of social exclusion, behavioral economics identifies ways to offset them. Some interventions have had very consequential impacts.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Psychology and Life

Chapter 2: Research Methods In Psychology

Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases Of Behavior

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

Chapter 5: Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States

Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis

Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment

Chapter 10: Human Development Across The Life Span

Chapter 12: Emotion, Stress, and Health

Chapter 13: Understanding Human Personality

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 15: Therapies For Psychological Disorders

Chapter 16: Social Psychology

WHAT MAKES PSYCHOLOGY UNIQUE?

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why Do Friendships End?

THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology&rsquos Historical Foundations

Women as Pioneering Researchers

Perspectives on Psychology

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Do Psychologists Participate in the Legal System?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

2. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY

Observer Biases and Operational Definitions

Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations and the Need for Controls

Psychology in Your Life: Can Survey Research Affect Your Attitudes?

Achieving Reliability and Validity

Behavioral Measures and Observations

ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH

Issues in Animal Research

BECOMING A WISER RESEARCH CONSUMER

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why is Skill with Numbers Important?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

UNDERSTANDING STATISTICS: ANALYZING DATA AND FORMING CONCLUSIONS

BECOMING A WISE CONSUMER OF STATISTICS

3. THE BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY BASES OF BEHAVIOR

Evolution and Natural Selection

Variation in the Human Genotype

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN ACTION

Neurotransmitters and Their Functions

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Does "It's Genetic" Mean?

Eavesdropping on the Brain

Brain Structures and Their Functions

Plasticity and Neurogenesis: Our Changing Brains

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Your Brain Determine Trust?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

4. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

SENSORY KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD

The Proximal and Distal Stimuli

From Physical Events to Mental Events

Psychological Dimensions of Sound

The Physiology of Hearing

The Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

Psychology in Your Life: What is Eating "Hot" Food Painful?

ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES IN PERCEPTION

Principles of Perceptual Grouping

Spatial and Temporal Integration

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Are Drivers Distracted When They Use Their Cell Phones?

IDENTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION PROCESSES

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes

The Influence of Contexts and Expectations

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

5. MIND, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND ALTERNATE STATES

THE CONTENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Awareness and Consciousness

Studying the Contents of Consciousness

THE FUNCTIONS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

The Uses of Consciousness

Studying the Functions of Consciousness

Dreams: Theater of the Mind

Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Can We Learn from "The Munchies"?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

6. LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: LEARNING PREDICTABLE SIGNALS

Pavlov&rsquos Surprising Observation

Processes of Conditioning

Applications of Classical Conditioning

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Classical Conditioning Affect Cancer Treatment?

OPERANT CONDITIONING: LEARNING ABOUT CONSEQUENCES

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Properties of Reinforcers

Schedules of Reinforcement

Critical Thinking in Your Life: To Spank or Not to Spank?

COGNITIVE INFLUENCES ON LEARNING

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

An Overview of Memory Processes

MEMORY USE FOR THE SHORT-TERM

LONG-TERM MEMORY: ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

The Processes of Encoding and Retrieval

Improving Memory for Unstructured Information

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can Memory Research Help Your Prepare for Exams?

STRUCTURES IN LONG-TERM MEMORY

Remembering as a Reconstructive Process

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MEMORY

Psychology in Your Life: Why Does Alzheimer's Disease Affect Memory?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Discovering the Processes of Mind

Mental Processes and Mental Resources

Language, Thought, and Culture

Psychology in Your Life: Why and How Do People Lie?

Using Visual Representations

Combining Verbal and Visual Representations

PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING

The Psychology of Decision Making

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Political Experts Predict the Future?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

9. INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT

Basic Features of Formal Assessment

The Origins of Intelligence Testing

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can You Trust Assessment on the Web?

Psychometric Theories of Intelligence

Sternberg&rsquos Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Gardner&rsquos Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Intelligence

THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE

The History of Group Comparisons

Culture and the Validity of IQ Tests

Assessing Creativity and the Link to Intelligence

Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Become More Creative?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Prenatal and Childhood Development

Physical Development in Adolescence

Physical Changes in Adulthood

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Piaget&rsquos Insights Into Mental Development

Contemporary Perspectives on Early Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development in Adulthood

Psychology in Your Life: Will Your Brain Work Differently as You Age?

Perceiving Speech and Perceiving Words

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Erikson&rsquos Psychosocial Stages

Social Development in Childhood

Social Development in Adolescence

Social Development in Adulthood

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Day Care Affect Children's Development?

SEX AND GENDER DIFFERENCES

Gender Identity and Gender Roles

Kohlberg&rsquos Stages of Moral Reasoning

Gender and Cultural Perspectives on Moral Reasoning

LEARNING TO AGE SUCCESSFULLY

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Functions of Motivational Concepts

Psychology in Your Life: How Does the Presence of Others Influence Your Eating?

Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors

Human Sexual Arousal and Response

The Evolution of Sexual Behaviors

MOTIVATION FOR PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT

Attributions for Success and Failure

Work and Organizational Psychology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Motivation Affect Academic Achievement?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

12. EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH

Basic Emotions and Culture

The Impact of Mood and Emotions

Psychology in Your Life: Can You Accurately Predict Your Future Emotions?

Physiological Stress Reactions

Psychological Stress Reactions

Positive Effects of Stress

The Biopsychosocial Model of Health

Job Burnout and the Health-Care System

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Health Psychology Help You Get More Exercise?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

13. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERSONALITY

TYPE AND TRAIT PERSONALITY THEORIES

Do Traits Predict Behaviors?

Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories

Evaluation of Freudian Theory

Extending Psychodynamic Theories

Psychology in Your Life: Why Are Some People Shy?

Features of Humanistic Theories

Evaluation of Humanistic Theories

SOCIAL-LEARNING AND COGNITIVE THEORIES

Rotter's Expectancy Theory

Mischel&rsquos Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory

Bandura&rsquos Cognitive Social-Learning Theory

Cantor&rsquos Social Intelligence Theory

Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories

Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts

The Cultural Construction of Self

Evaluation of Self Theories

COMPARING PERSONALITY THEORIES

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How is Personality Conveyed in Cyberspace?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

14. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

THE NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Deciding What Is Abnormal

The Problem of Objectivity

Classifying Psychological Disorders

The Etiology of Psychopathology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Do Disorders Enter DSM?

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Causes of Anxiety Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Gender Differences in Depression

Psychology in Your Life: How Can We Pinpoint Interactions of Nature and Nurture?

Borderline Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

Major Types of Schizophrenia

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

THE STIGMA OF MENTAL ILLNESS

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

15. THERAPIES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Goals and Major Therapies

Therapists and Therapeutic Settings

Diversity Issues in Psychotherapy

Historical Perspectives on Institutional Treatment

Later Psychodynamic Therapies

Psychology in Your Life: Are Lives Haunted by Repressed Memories?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Couple and Family Therapy

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does Therapy Affect Brain Activity?

TREATMENT EVALUATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

CONSTRUCTING SOCIAL REALITY

The Origins of Attribution Theory

The Fundamental Attribution Error

Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

THE POWER OF THE SITUATION

Decision Making in Groups

ATTITUDES, ATTITUDE CHANGE, AND ACTION

Persuasion by Your Own Actions

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Are You Like a Chameleon?

AGGRESSION, ALTRUISM, AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Individual Differences in Aggression

Situational Influences on Aggression

The Roots of Prosocial Behavior

The Effects of the Situation on Prosocial Behavior

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can You Get People to Volunteer?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide


How To Have A Great Relationship: 5 New Secrets From Research

I’ve posted a lot about the science around love, including how to tell if your spouse is cheating and why high heels are sexy.

But what about the stuff we need to know to be happy? Platitudes don’t cut it and though the poets are often right, they’re frequently vague.

Is there an expert who can give us some real answers about love: how to find it, nurture it and maybe even repair it?

You better believe there is. Arthur Aron is one of the world’s top researchers on romantic love.

I gave Arthur a call and learned what makes us attractive, how to have a great first date and the things that kill and improve relationships.


Introduction

The randomised clinical trial is regarded as the most valid method for assessing the benefits and harms of healthcare interventions.1 One challenge to the validity of such trials is the tendency for assessments of outcomes to systematically deviate from the truth because of predispositions in observers, such as from hope or expectation.2

Such observer bias, also called ascertainment bias or detection bias, might be especially important when outcome assessors have strong predispositions and when outcomes are subjective—that is, involve personal judgment such as with qualitative scores or pattern recognition of images. Similarly, observer bias might have little practical importance when neutral assessors evaluate an objective outcome, such as death.

Many trials use blinded outcome assessors to avoid bias, though use of non-blinded outcome assessors is also common,3 4 especially in non-pharmacological trials. For example, one study of orthopaedic trauma trials reported that blinded outcome assessment had not been implemented in 90% of trials.3 It is an empirical question to which degree the estimated effects of experimental interventions in randomised trials are affected by lack of blinding of the outcome assessors and which factors influence the degree of bias.

The most reliable way of studying the impact of non-blinded outcome assessors is to analyse trials that use both blinded and non-blinded assessors for the same outcome. One such trial by Noseworthy and colleagues is often cited, reporting that the effect of plasma exchange for multiple sclerosis was significant only with assessments by non-blinded neurologists.5 The finding, however, was inconsistent across time points, seen only for one of the two experimental interventions, and might be atypical. Other studies have been based on indirect comparisons with a considerable risk of confounding.6 7 8

It is prudent to suspect possible bias in trials with non-blinded assessors. Existing analyses, however, do not provide a reliable assessment of the typical degree of observer bias in randomised clinical trials. Thus, it is not clear whether observer bias in clinical trials, on average, is negligible or large or how variable the size and direction of any observer bias is or which factors in a trial are associated with a more pronounced degree of bias.

A reliable evaluation of the impact of non-blinded outcome assessors in randomised clinical trials is important, both to guide the design of future trials and to assist the balanced interpretation of trial results—for example, in the assessment of the risk of bias in trials for meta-analysis.1 It also seems important for evidence based medicine to strengthen its own evidence base.

We systematically reviewed randomised trials with blinded and non-blinded assessors of binary outcomes to evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials and to examine reasons for its variation.


Subjective Versus Objective Participation

Participant observation requires the researcher to be a subjective participant in the sense that they use knowledge gained through personal involvement with the research subjects to interact with and gain further access to the group. This component supplies a dimension of information that is lacking in survey data. Participant observation research also requires the researcher to aim to be an objective observer and record everything that he or she has seen, not letting feelings and emotions influence their observations and findings.

Yet, most researchers recognize that true objectivity is an ideal, not an actuality, given that the way in which we see the world and people in it is always shaped by our previous experiences and our positionality in the social structure relative to others. As such, a good participant observer will also maintain a critical self-reflexivity that allows her to recognize the way she herself might influence the field of research and the data she collects.


Table of contents

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS: Chapter 1: Psychology and Life

Chapter 2: Research Methods In Psychology

Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases Of Behavior

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

Chapter 5: Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States

Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis

Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment

Chapter 10: Human Development Across The Life Span

Chapter 12: Emotion, Stress, and Health

Chapter 13: Understanding Human Personality

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 15: Therapies For Psychological Disorders

Chapter 16: Social Psychology

WHAT MAKES PSYCHOLOGY UNIQUE?

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why Do Friendships End?

THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology's Historical Foundations

Women as Pioneering Researchers

Perspectives on Psychology

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Do Psychologists Participate in the Legal System?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

2. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY

Observer Biases and Operational Definitions

Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations and the Need for Controls

Psychology in Your Life: Can Survey Research Affect Your Attitudes?

Achieving Reliability and Validity

Behavioral Measures and Observations

ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH

Issues in Animal Research

BECOMING A WISER RESEARCH CONSUMER

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why is Skill with Numbers Important?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

UNDERSTANDING STATISTICS: ANALYZING DATA AND FORMING CONCLUSIONS

BECOMING A WISE CONSUMER OF STATISTICS

3. THE BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY BASES OF BEHAVIOR

Evolution and Natural Selection

Variation in the Human Genotype

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN ACTION

Neurotransmitters and Their Functions

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Does "It's Genetic" Mean?

Eavesdropping on the Brain

Brain Structures and Their Functions

Plasticity and Neurogenesis: Our Changing Brains

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Your Brain Determine Trust?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

4. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

SENSORY KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD

The Proximal and Distal Stimuli

From Physical Events to Mental Events

Psychological Dimensions of Sound

The Physiology of Hearing

The Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

Psychology in Your Life: What is Eating "Hot" Food Painful?

ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES IN PERCEPTION

Principles of Perceptual Grouping

Spatial and Temporal Integration

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Are Drivers Distracted When They Use Their Cell Phones?

IDENTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION PROCESSES

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes

The Influence of Contexts and Expectations

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

5. MIND, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND ALTERNATE STATES

THE CONTENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Awareness and Consciousness

Studying the Contents of Consciousness

THE FUNCTIONS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

The Uses of Consciousness

Studying the Functions of Consciousness

Dreams: Theater of the Mind

Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Can We Learn from "The Munchies"?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

6. LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: LEARNING PREDICTABLE SIGNALS

Pavlov's Surprising Observation

Processes of Conditioning

Applications of Classical Conditioning

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Classical Conditioning Affect Cancer Treatment?

OPERANT CONDITIONING: LEARNING ABOUT CONSEQUENCES

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Properties of Reinforcers

Schedules of Reinforcement

Critical Thinking in Your Life: To Spank or Not to Spank?

COGNITIVE INFLUENCES ON LEARNING

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

An Overview of Memory Processes

MEMORY USE FOR THE SHORT-TERM

LONG-TERM MEMORY: ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

The Processes of Encoding and Retrieval

Improving Memory for Unstructured Information

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can Memory Research Help Your Prepare for Exams?

STRUCTURES IN LONG-TERM MEMORY

Remembering as a Reconstructive Process

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MEMORY

Psychology in Your Life: Why Does Alzheimer's Disease Affect Memory?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Discovering the Processes of Mind

Mental Processes and Mental Resources

Language, Thought, and Culture

Psychology in Your Life: Why and How Do People Lie?

Using Visual Representations

Combining Verbal and Visual Representations

PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING

The Psychology of Decision Making

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Political Experts Predict the Future?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

9. INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT

Basic Features of Formal Assessment

The Origins of Intelligence Testing

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can You Trust Assessment on the Web?

Psychometric Theories of Intelligence

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Intelligence

THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE

The History of Group Comparisons

Culture and the Validity of IQ Tests

Assessing Creativity and the Link to Intelligence

Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Become More Creative?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Prenatal and Childhood Development

Physical Development in Adolescence

Physical Changes in Adulthood

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Piaget's Insights Into Mental Development

Contemporary Perspectives on Early Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development in Adulthood

Psychology in Your Life: Will Your Brain Work Differently as You Age?

Perceiving Speech and Perceiving Words

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages

Social Development in Childhood

Social Development in Adolescence

Social Development in Adulthood

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Day Care Affect Children's Development?

SEX AND GENDER DIFFERENCES

Gender Identity and Gender Roles

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning

Gender and Cultural Perspectives on Moral Reasoning

LEARNING TO AGE SUCCESSFULLY

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Functions of Motivational Concepts

Psychology in Your Life: How Does the Presence of Others Influence Your Eating?

Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors

Human Sexual Arousal and Response

The Evolution of Sexual Behaviors

MOTIVATION FOR PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT

Attributions for Success and Failure

Work and Organizational Psychology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Motivation Affect Academic Achievement?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

12. EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH

Basic Emotions and Culture

The Impact of Mood and Emotions

Psychology in Your Life: Can You Accurately Predict Your Future Emotions?

Physiological Stress Reactions

Psychological Stress Reactions

Positive Effects of Stress

The Biopsychosocial Model of Health

Job Burnout and the Health-Care System

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Health Psychology Help You Get More Exercise?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

13. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERSONALITY

TYPE AND TRAIT PERSONALITY THEORIES

Do Traits Predict Behaviors?

Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories

Evaluation of Freudian Theory

Extending Psychodynamic Theories

Psychology in Your Life: Why Are Some People Shy?

Features of Humanistic Theories

Evaluation of Humanistic Theories

SOCIAL-LEARNING AND COGNITIVE THEORIES

Rotter's Expectancy Theory

Mischel's Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory

Bandura's Cognitive Social-Learning Theory

Cantor's Social Intelligence Theory

Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories

Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts

The Cultural Construction of Self

Evaluation of Self Theories

COMPARING PERSONALITY THEORIES

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How is Personality Conveyed in Cyberspace?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

14. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

THE NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Deciding What Is Abnormal

The Problem of Objectivity

Classifying Psychological Disorders

The Etiology of Psychopathology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Do Disorders Enter DSM?

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Causes of Anxiety Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Gender Differences in Depression

Psychology in Your Life: How Can We Pinpoint Interactions of Nature and Nurture?

Borderline Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

Major Types of Schizophrenia

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

THE STIGMA OF MENTAL ILLNESS

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

15. THERAPIES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Goals and Major Therapies

Therapists and Therapeutic Settings

Diversity Issues in Psychotherapy

Historical Perspectives on Institutional Treatment

Later Psychodynamic Therapies

Psychology in Your Life: Are Lives Haunted by Repressed Memories?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Couple and Family Therapy

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does Therapy Affect Brain Activity?

TREATMENT EVALUATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

CONSTRUCTING SOCIAL REALITY

The Origins of Attribution Theory

The Fundamental Attribution Error

Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

THE POWER OF THE SITUATION

Decision Making in Groups

ATTITUDES, ATTITUDE CHANGE, AND ACTION

Persuasion by Your Own Actions

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Are You Like a Chameleon?

AGGRESSION, ALTRUISM, AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Individual Differences in Aggression

Situational Influences on Aggression

The Roots of Prosocial Behavior

The Effects of the Situation on Prosocial Behavior

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can You Get People to Volunteer?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide
show more


Filename Description
bjso12234-sup-0001-AppendixS1.pdfPDF document, 58.5 KB Appendix S1. List of demographic variables.
bjso12234-sup-0002-AppendixS2.pdfPDF document, 46.3 KB Appendix S2. List of items.
bjso12234-sup-0003-AppendixS3.pdfPDF document, 93.5 KB Appendix S3.Exploratory analyses: Indirect effect of empowerment.
bjso12234-sup-0004-AppendixS4.pdfPDF document, 235.9 KB Appendix S4. Figure 1: Effect of help type mediated by empowerment.
bjso12234-sup-0005-AppendixS5.pdfPDF document, 36.4 KB Appendix S5. Latent factors correlation.

Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.


We would like to express our appreciation to Christoph Becker (Technical University of Munich) for his continuous advisory support.

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Keywords : personality, teacher, coach, physical education, school, sports, scoping review, teaching competence

Citation: Schnitzius M, Kirch A, Mess F and Spengler S (2019) Inside Out: A Scoping Review on the Physical Education Teacher’s Personality. Front. Psychol. 10:2510. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02510

Received: 21 April 2019 Accepted: 23 October 2019
Published: 08 November 2019.

Douglas F. Kauffman, Medical University of the Americas, United States

Antonio Granero-Gallegos, University of Almer໚, Spain
Mohamed A. Ali, Grand Canyon University, United States

Copyright © 2019 Schnitzius, Kirch, Mess and Spengler. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


Abstract

This study investigates the effect of smallholders’ personality traits on their land rental market decisions. We develop a conceptual framework and show that these internal factors could affect smallholders’ land rental market participation beyond institutional and socio-demographic factors. Our empirical analysis is based on a survey of 2119 rural households collected in the North China Plain. We find that smallholders with a higher level of openness are more active in participating in the farmland rental market. Moreover, internal locus of control plays a significant role in explaining smallholders’ land renting behavior. We further show that need for achievement mediates the link between internal locus of control and smallholder’s intention to rent land, indicating that fostering a higher level of internal locus of control—and subsequently achievement desire—could play an important role in promoting smallholders’ land-renting behavior. More generally, our results imply that taking rural smallholders’ personality traits into account in designing land rental policies may increase the effectiveness of policies aimed at promoting land rental market participation among smallholders and incubating crop farm scale enlargement in rural China.


The Whys of Social Exclusion: Insights from Behavioral Economics

All over the world, people are prevented from participating fully in society through mechanisms that go beyond the structural and institutional barriers that rational choice theory identifies (―poverty, exclusion by law or force, taste-based or statistical discrimination, and externalities from social networks differentiated by socioeconomic status). This paper discusses four additional mechanisms that can be explained by bounded rationality: (a) implicit discrimination, (b) self-stereotyping and self-censorship, (c) rules of thumb adapted to disadvantaged environments that are dysfunctional in more privileged settings, and (d) “adaptive preferences,” in which an excluded group comes to view its exclusion as natural. Institutions, if they are stable, come to have cognitive foundations—concepts, categories, social identities, and worldviews—through which people mediate their perceptions of themselves and the world around them. Abolishing or reforming a discriminatory institution may have little effect on the social categories it created groups previously discriminated against by law may remain excluded through custom and habits of the mind. Recognizing new forces of social exclusion, behavioral economics identifies ways to offset them. Some interventions have had very consequential impacts.


How To Have A Great Relationship: 5 New Secrets From Research

I’ve posted a lot about the science around love, including how to tell if your spouse is cheating and why high heels are sexy.

But what about the stuff we need to know to be happy? Platitudes don’t cut it and though the poets are often right, they’re frequently vague.

Is there an expert who can give us some real answers about love: how to find it, nurture it and maybe even repair it?

You better believe there is. Arthur Aron is one of the world’s top researchers on romantic love.

I gave Arthur a call and learned what makes us attractive, how to have a great first date and the things that kill and improve relationships.


Introduction

The randomised clinical trial is regarded as the most valid method for assessing the benefits and harms of healthcare interventions.1 One challenge to the validity of such trials is the tendency for assessments of outcomes to systematically deviate from the truth because of predispositions in observers, such as from hope or expectation.2

Such observer bias, also called ascertainment bias or detection bias, might be especially important when outcome assessors have strong predispositions and when outcomes are subjective—that is, involve personal judgment such as with qualitative scores or pattern recognition of images. Similarly, observer bias might have little practical importance when neutral assessors evaluate an objective outcome, such as death.

Many trials use blinded outcome assessors to avoid bias, though use of non-blinded outcome assessors is also common,3 4 especially in non-pharmacological trials. For example, one study of orthopaedic trauma trials reported that blinded outcome assessment had not been implemented in 90% of trials.3 It is an empirical question to which degree the estimated effects of experimental interventions in randomised trials are affected by lack of blinding of the outcome assessors and which factors influence the degree of bias.

The most reliable way of studying the impact of non-blinded outcome assessors is to analyse trials that use both blinded and non-blinded assessors for the same outcome. One such trial by Noseworthy and colleagues is often cited, reporting that the effect of plasma exchange for multiple sclerosis was significant only with assessments by non-blinded neurologists.5 The finding, however, was inconsistent across time points, seen only for one of the two experimental interventions, and might be atypical. Other studies have been based on indirect comparisons with a considerable risk of confounding.6 7 8

It is prudent to suspect possible bias in trials with non-blinded assessors. Existing analyses, however, do not provide a reliable assessment of the typical degree of observer bias in randomised clinical trials. Thus, it is not clear whether observer bias in clinical trials, on average, is negligible or large or how variable the size and direction of any observer bias is or which factors in a trial are associated with a more pronounced degree of bias.

A reliable evaluation of the impact of non-blinded outcome assessors in randomised clinical trials is important, both to guide the design of future trials and to assist the balanced interpretation of trial results—for example, in the assessment of the risk of bias in trials for meta-analysis.1 It also seems important for evidence based medicine to strengthen its own evidence base.

We systematically reviewed randomised trials with blinded and non-blinded assessors of binary outcomes to evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials and to examine reasons for its variation.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Psychology and Life

Chapter 2: Research Methods In Psychology

Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases Of Behavior

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

Chapter 5: Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States

Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis

Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment

Chapter 10: Human Development Across The Life Span

Chapter 12: Emotion, Stress, and Health

Chapter 13: Understanding Human Personality

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 15: Therapies For Psychological Disorders

Chapter 16: Social Psychology

WHAT MAKES PSYCHOLOGY UNIQUE?

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why Do Friendships End?

THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology&rsquos Historical Foundations

Women as Pioneering Researchers

Perspectives on Psychology

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Do Psychologists Participate in the Legal System?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

2. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY

Observer Biases and Operational Definitions

Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations and the Need for Controls

Psychology in Your Life: Can Survey Research Affect Your Attitudes?

Achieving Reliability and Validity

Behavioral Measures and Observations

ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH

Issues in Animal Research

BECOMING A WISER RESEARCH CONSUMER

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why is Skill with Numbers Important?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

UNDERSTANDING STATISTICS: ANALYZING DATA AND FORMING CONCLUSIONS

BECOMING A WISE CONSUMER OF STATISTICS

3. THE BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY BASES OF BEHAVIOR

Evolution and Natural Selection

Variation in the Human Genotype

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN ACTION

Neurotransmitters and Their Functions

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Does "It's Genetic" Mean?

Eavesdropping on the Brain

Brain Structures and Their Functions

Plasticity and Neurogenesis: Our Changing Brains

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Your Brain Determine Trust?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

4. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

SENSORY KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD

The Proximal and Distal Stimuli

From Physical Events to Mental Events

Psychological Dimensions of Sound

The Physiology of Hearing

The Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

Psychology in Your Life: What is Eating "Hot" Food Painful?

ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES IN PERCEPTION

Principles of Perceptual Grouping

Spatial and Temporal Integration

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Are Drivers Distracted When They Use Their Cell Phones?

IDENTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION PROCESSES

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes

The Influence of Contexts and Expectations

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

5. MIND, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND ALTERNATE STATES

THE CONTENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Awareness and Consciousness

Studying the Contents of Consciousness

THE FUNCTIONS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

The Uses of Consciousness

Studying the Functions of Consciousness

Dreams: Theater of the Mind

Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Can We Learn from "The Munchies"?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

6. LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: LEARNING PREDICTABLE SIGNALS

Pavlov&rsquos Surprising Observation

Processes of Conditioning

Applications of Classical Conditioning

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Classical Conditioning Affect Cancer Treatment?

OPERANT CONDITIONING: LEARNING ABOUT CONSEQUENCES

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Properties of Reinforcers

Schedules of Reinforcement

Critical Thinking in Your Life: To Spank or Not to Spank?

COGNITIVE INFLUENCES ON LEARNING

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

An Overview of Memory Processes

MEMORY USE FOR THE SHORT-TERM

LONG-TERM MEMORY: ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

The Processes of Encoding and Retrieval

Improving Memory for Unstructured Information

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can Memory Research Help Your Prepare for Exams?

STRUCTURES IN LONG-TERM MEMORY

Remembering as a Reconstructive Process

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MEMORY

Psychology in Your Life: Why Does Alzheimer's Disease Affect Memory?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Discovering the Processes of Mind

Mental Processes and Mental Resources

Language, Thought, and Culture

Psychology in Your Life: Why and How Do People Lie?

Using Visual Representations

Combining Verbal and Visual Representations

PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING

The Psychology of Decision Making

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Political Experts Predict the Future?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

9. INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT

Basic Features of Formal Assessment

The Origins of Intelligence Testing

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can You Trust Assessment on the Web?

Psychometric Theories of Intelligence

Sternberg&rsquos Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Gardner&rsquos Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Intelligence

THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE

The History of Group Comparisons

Culture and the Validity of IQ Tests

Assessing Creativity and the Link to Intelligence

Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Become More Creative?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Prenatal and Childhood Development

Physical Development in Adolescence

Physical Changes in Adulthood

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Piaget&rsquos Insights Into Mental Development

Contemporary Perspectives on Early Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development in Adulthood

Psychology in Your Life: Will Your Brain Work Differently as You Age?

Perceiving Speech and Perceiving Words

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Erikson&rsquos Psychosocial Stages

Social Development in Childhood

Social Development in Adolescence

Social Development in Adulthood

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Day Care Affect Children's Development?

SEX AND GENDER DIFFERENCES

Gender Identity and Gender Roles

Kohlberg&rsquos Stages of Moral Reasoning

Gender and Cultural Perspectives on Moral Reasoning

LEARNING TO AGE SUCCESSFULLY

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Functions of Motivational Concepts

Psychology in Your Life: How Does the Presence of Others Influence Your Eating?

Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors

Human Sexual Arousal and Response

The Evolution of Sexual Behaviors

MOTIVATION FOR PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT

Attributions for Success and Failure

Work and Organizational Psychology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Motivation Affect Academic Achievement?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

12. EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH

Basic Emotions and Culture

The Impact of Mood and Emotions

Psychology in Your Life: Can You Accurately Predict Your Future Emotions?

Physiological Stress Reactions

Psychological Stress Reactions

Positive Effects of Stress

The Biopsychosocial Model of Health

Job Burnout and the Health-Care System

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Health Psychology Help You Get More Exercise?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

13. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERSONALITY

TYPE AND TRAIT PERSONALITY THEORIES

Do Traits Predict Behaviors?

Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories

Evaluation of Freudian Theory

Extending Psychodynamic Theories

Psychology in Your Life: Why Are Some People Shy?

Features of Humanistic Theories

Evaluation of Humanistic Theories

SOCIAL-LEARNING AND COGNITIVE THEORIES

Rotter's Expectancy Theory

Mischel&rsquos Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory

Bandura&rsquos Cognitive Social-Learning Theory

Cantor&rsquos Social Intelligence Theory

Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories

Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts

The Cultural Construction of Self

Evaluation of Self Theories

COMPARING PERSONALITY THEORIES

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How is Personality Conveyed in Cyberspace?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

14. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

THE NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Deciding What Is Abnormal

The Problem of Objectivity

Classifying Psychological Disorders

The Etiology of Psychopathology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Do Disorders Enter DSM?

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Causes of Anxiety Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Gender Differences in Depression

Psychology in Your Life: How Can We Pinpoint Interactions of Nature and Nurture?

Borderline Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

Major Types of Schizophrenia

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

THE STIGMA OF MENTAL ILLNESS

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

15. THERAPIES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Goals and Major Therapies

Therapists and Therapeutic Settings

Diversity Issues in Psychotherapy

Historical Perspectives on Institutional Treatment

Later Psychodynamic Therapies

Psychology in Your Life: Are Lives Haunted by Repressed Memories?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Couple and Family Therapy

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does Therapy Affect Brain Activity?

TREATMENT EVALUATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

CONSTRUCTING SOCIAL REALITY

The Origins of Attribution Theory

The Fundamental Attribution Error

Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

THE POWER OF THE SITUATION

Decision Making in Groups

ATTITUDES, ATTITUDE CHANGE, AND ACTION

Persuasion by Your Own Actions

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Are You Like a Chameleon?

AGGRESSION, ALTRUISM, AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Individual Differences in Aggression

Situational Influences on Aggression

The Roots of Prosocial Behavior

The Effects of the Situation on Prosocial Behavior

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can You Get People to Volunteer?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide


Abstract

This study investigates the effect of smallholders’ personality traits on their land rental market decisions. We develop a conceptual framework and show that these internal factors could affect smallholders’ land rental market participation beyond institutional and socio-demographic factors. Our empirical analysis is based on a survey of 2119 rural households collected in the North China Plain. We find that smallholders with a higher level of openness are more active in participating in the farmland rental market. Moreover, internal locus of control plays a significant role in explaining smallholders’ land renting behavior. We further show that need for achievement mediates the link between internal locus of control and smallholder’s intention to rent land, indicating that fostering a higher level of internal locus of control—and subsequently achievement desire—could play an important role in promoting smallholders’ land-renting behavior. More generally, our results imply that taking rural smallholders’ personality traits into account in designing land rental policies may increase the effectiveness of policies aimed at promoting land rental market participation among smallholders and incubating crop farm scale enlargement in rural China.


We would like to express our appreciation to Christoph Becker (Technical University of Munich) for his continuous advisory support.

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Keywords : personality, teacher, coach, physical education, school, sports, scoping review, teaching competence

Citation: Schnitzius M, Kirch A, Mess F and Spengler S (2019) Inside Out: A Scoping Review on the Physical Education Teacher’s Personality. Front. Psychol. 10:2510. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02510

Received: 21 April 2019 Accepted: 23 October 2019
Published: 08 November 2019.

Douglas F. Kauffman, Medical University of the Americas, United States

Antonio Granero-Gallegos, University of Almer໚, Spain
Mohamed A. Ali, Grand Canyon University, United States

Copyright © 2019 Schnitzius, Kirch, Mess and Spengler. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


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bjso12234-sup-0001-AppendixS1.pdfPDF document, 58.5 KB Appendix S1. List of demographic variables.
bjso12234-sup-0002-AppendixS2.pdfPDF document, 46.3 KB Appendix S2. List of items.
bjso12234-sup-0003-AppendixS3.pdfPDF document, 93.5 KB Appendix S3.Exploratory analyses: Indirect effect of empowerment.
bjso12234-sup-0004-AppendixS4.pdfPDF document, 235.9 KB Appendix S4. Figure 1: Effect of help type mediated by empowerment.
bjso12234-sup-0005-AppendixS5.pdfPDF document, 36.4 KB Appendix S5. Latent factors correlation.

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Table of contents

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS: Chapter 1: Psychology and Life

Chapter 2: Research Methods In Psychology

Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases Of Behavior

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

Chapter 5: Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States

Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis

Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment

Chapter 10: Human Development Across The Life Span

Chapter 12: Emotion, Stress, and Health

Chapter 13: Understanding Human Personality

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 15: Therapies For Psychological Disorders

Chapter 16: Social Psychology

WHAT MAKES PSYCHOLOGY UNIQUE?

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why Do Friendships End?

THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology's Historical Foundations

Women as Pioneering Researchers

Perspectives on Psychology

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Do Psychologists Participate in the Legal System?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

2. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY

Observer Biases and Operational Definitions

Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations and the Need for Controls

Psychology in Your Life: Can Survey Research Affect Your Attitudes?

Achieving Reliability and Validity

Behavioral Measures and Observations

ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH

Issues in Animal Research

BECOMING A WISER RESEARCH CONSUMER

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why is Skill with Numbers Important?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

UNDERSTANDING STATISTICS: ANALYZING DATA AND FORMING CONCLUSIONS

BECOMING A WISE CONSUMER OF STATISTICS

3. THE BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY BASES OF BEHAVIOR

Evolution and Natural Selection

Variation in the Human Genotype

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN ACTION

Neurotransmitters and Their Functions

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Does "It's Genetic" Mean?

Eavesdropping on the Brain

Brain Structures and Their Functions

Plasticity and Neurogenesis: Our Changing Brains

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Your Brain Determine Trust?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

4. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

SENSORY KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD

The Proximal and Distal Stimuli

From Physical Events to Mental Events

Psychological Dimensions of Sound

The Physiology of Hearing

The Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

Psychology in Your Life: What is Eating "Hot" Food Painful?

ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES IN PERCEPTION

Principles of Perceptual Grouping

Spatial and Temporal Integration

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Are Drivers Distracted When They Use Their Cell Phones?

IDENTIFICATION AND RECOGNITION PROCESSES

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes

The Influence of Contexts and Expectations

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

5. MIND, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND ALTERNATE STATES

THE CONTENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Awareness and Consciousness

Studying the Contents of Consciousness

THE FUNCTIONS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

The Uses of Consciousness

Studying the Functions of Consciousness

Dreams: Theater of the Mind

Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs

Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Can We Learn from "The Munchies"?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

6. LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: LEARNING PREDICTABLE SIGNALS

Pavlov's Surprising Observation

Processes of Conditioning

Applications of Classical Conditioning

Psychology in Your Life: How Does Classical Conditioning Affect Cancer Treatment?

OPERANT CONDITIONING: LEARNING ABOUT CONSEQUENCES

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Properties of Reinforcers

Schedules of Reinforcement

Critical Thinking in Your Life: To Spank or Not to Spank?

COGNITIVE INFLUENCES ON LEARNING

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

An Overview of Memory Processes

MEMORY USE FOR THE SHORT-TERM

LONG-TERM MEMORY: ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

The Processes of Encoding and Retrieval

Improving Memory for Unstructured Information

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can Memory Research Help Your Prepare for Exams?

STRUCTURES IN LONG-TERM MEMORY

Remembering as a Reconstructive Process

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MEMORY

Psychology in Your Life: Why Does Alzheimer's Disease Affect Memory?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Discovering the Processes of Mind

Mental Processes and Mental Resources

Language, Thought, and Culture

Psychology in Your Life: Why and How Do People Lie?

Using Visual Representations

Combining Verbal and Visual Representations

PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING

The Psychology of Decision Making

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Political Experts Predict the Future?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

9. INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT

Basic Features of Formal Assessment

The Origins of Intelligence Testing

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can You Trust Assessment on the Web?

Psychometric Theories of Intelligence

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Intelligence

THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE

The History of Group Comparisons

Culture and the Validity of IQ Tests

Assessing Creativity and the Link to Intelligence

Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Become More Creative?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Prenatal and Childhood Development

Physical Development in Adolescence

Physical Changes in Adulthood

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Piaget's Insights Into Mental Development

Contemporary Perspectives on Early Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development in Adulthood

Psychology in Your Life: Will Your Brain Work Differently as You Age?

Perceiving Speech and Perceiving Words

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages

Social Development in Childhood

Social Development in Adolescence

Social Development in Adulthood

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Day Care Affect Children's Development?

SEX AND GENDER DIFFERENCES

Gender Identity and Gender Roles

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning

Gender and Cultural Perspectives on Moral Reasoning

LEARNING TO AGE SUCCESSFULLY

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

Functions of Motivational Concepts

Psychology in Your Life: How Does the Presence of Others Influence Your Eating?

Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors

Human Sexual Arousal and Response

The Evolution of Sexual Behaviors

MOTIVATION FOR PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT

Attributions for Success and Failure

Work and Organizational Psychology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Motivation Affect Academic Achievement?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

12. EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH

Basic Emotions and Culture

The Impact of Mood and Emotions

Psychology in Your Life: Can You Accurately Predict Your Future Emotions?

Physiological Stress Reactions

Psychological Stress Reactions

Positive Effects of Stress

The Biopsychosocial Model of Health

Job Burnout and the Health-Care System

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Health Psychology Help You Get More Exercise?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

13. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERSONALITY

TYPE AND TRAIT PERSONALITY THEORIES

Do Traits Predict Behaviors?

Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories

Evaluation of Freudian Theory

Extending Psychodynamic Theories

Psychology in Your Life: Why Are Some People Shy?

Features of Humanistic Theories

Evaluation of Humanistic Theories

SOCIAL-LEARNING AND COGNITIVE THEORIES

Rotter's Expectancy Theory

Mischel's Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory

Bandura's Cognitive Social-Learning Theory

Cantor's Social Intelligence Theory

Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories

Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts

The Cultural Construction of Self

Evaluation of Self Theories

COMPARING PERSONALITY THEORIES

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How is Personality Conveyed in Cyberspace?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

14. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

THE NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Deciding What Is Abnormal

The Problem of Objectivity

Classifying Psychological Disorders

The Etiology of Psychopathology

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Do Disorders Enter DSM?

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Causes of Anxiety Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Gender Differences in Depression

Psychology in Your Life: How Can We Pinpoint Interactions of Nature and Nurture?

Borderline Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

Major Types of Schizophrenia

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

THE STIGMA OF MENTAL ILLNESS

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

15. THERAPIES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Goals and Major Therapies

Therapists and Therapeutic Settings

Diversity Issues in Psychotherapy

Historical Perspectives on Institutional Treatment

Later Psychodynamic Therapies

Psychology in Your Life: Are Lives Haunted by Repressed Memories?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Couple and Family Therapy

Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does Therapy Affect Brain Activity?

TREATMENT EVALUATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

CONSTRUCTING SOCIAL REALITY

The Origins of Attribution Theory

The Fundamental Attribution Error

Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

THE POWER OF THE SITUATION

Decision Making in Groups

ATTITUDES, ATTITUDE CHANGE, AND ACTION

Persuasion by Your Own Actions

Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Are You Like a Chameleon?

AGGRESSION, ALTRUISM, AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Individual Differences in Aggression

Situational Influences on Aggression

The Roots of Prosocial Behavior

The Effects of the Situation on Prosocial Behavior

Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can You Get People to Volunteer?

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide
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Subjective Versus Objective Participation

Participant observation requires the researcher to be a subjective participant in the sense that they use knowledge gained through personal involvement with the research subjects to interact with and gain further access to the group. This component supplies a dimension of information that is lacking in survey data. Participant observation research also requires the researcher to aim to be an objective observer and record everything that he or she has seen, not letting feelings and emotions influence their observations and findings.

Yet, most researchers recognize that true objectivity is an ideal, not an actuality, given that the way in which we see the world and people in it is always shaped by our previous experiences and our positionality in the social structure relative to others. As such, a good participant observer will also maintain a critical self-reflexivity that allows her to recognize the way she herself might influence the field of research and the data she collects.