Information

How many diagnosable mental disorders are included in the DSM?

How many diagnosable mental disorders are included in the DSM?

This Wikipedia page says:

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the American Psychiatric Association's standard reference for psychiatry which includes over 450 different definitions of mental disorders.

However, I haven't been able to find this information on any credible (government or academic) websites.

Is there a more credible source for determining the number of diagnosable mental disorders in the DSM?


I have not come up with a definitive answer myself as there is a wide range of figures online.

Michael Noll-Hussong states on ResearchGate

The total number of specific diagnoses was reduced from 172 in DSM-IV to 157 in DSM-5. see, e.g., McCarron RM. The DSM-5 and the art of medicine: certainly uncertain. Annals of internal medicine. 2013;159(5):360-1.

I have recently managed to access this referenced article (DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-7-201310010-00688) and it states

The number of psychiatric disorders decreased from 172 (DSM-IV) to 152 (DSM-5). (This does not include disorders that are “Not otherwise specified” or “Other specified/unspecified.”)

The Huffington Post states that there are over 300 in DSM-5

Because of discrepancies in the information available I have seen, I have therefore, painstakingly gone through my copy of DSM-5 and pages 877-896 provide a

Numerical Listing of DSM-5 Diagnoses and Codes (ICD-10-CM)

ICD-10 codes are provided for cross-referencing, and I have counted roughly 742 of them by saying that a full page has 45 and there are 20 pages with some listings taking more than 1 line. The problem with the approximate figure of 742 is that in the list are items such as obesity which are not mental disorders.


Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

The following drugs are considered addictive in DSM-5: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis (marijuana), hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), inhalants, opioids (pain killers), sedatives (tranquilizers), hypnotics (sleep inducers), stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine), cocaine, and tobacco (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Our evolving understanding of the reward mechanisms involved in addictive disorders is an excellent example of the synergy between psychology and psychiatry. For example, the fact that gambling appears to activate the same brain reward mechanisms as drugs, resulted in its inclusion under substance use disorder in DSM-5.

Olds and Milner (1954) discovered that electrical stimulation of certain areas of a rat’s brain served as a powerful reinforcer for a rat’s bar-pressing behavior. Later it was discovered that manipulating the pulse of electrical stimulation produced behavioral effects similar to those resulting from different drug dosages higher pulse rates acted like higher dosages. The effects were so powerful that rats preferred electrical stimulation to food and would continue to press the bar despite being starved (Wise, 1996)! In this respect, electrical brain stimulation acts in a manner similar to other addictive substances the individual craves the substance despite self-destructive consequences. The same parts of the brain mediate the reinforcing effects of electrical stimulation and different drugs through the neurotransmitter dopamine (Wise, 1989, 1996).

Similar to autism and schizophrenia, the DSM-5 collapses across previous distinctions between types of substance abuse and addictive disorders and provides criteria for indicating severity. The diagnosis of substance use disorder encompasses the previous diagnoses of substance abuse and substance dependence. The severity of the disorder is based on the number of symptoms identified from the following list (2-3 = mild, 4-5 = moderate, six or more = severe):

  1. Taking the substance in larger amounts or for longer than the you meant to
  2. Wanting to cut down or stop using the substance but not managing to
  3. Spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering from use of the substance
  4. Cravings and urges to use the substance
  5. Not managing to do what you should at work, home or school, because of substance use
  6. Continuing to use, even when it causes problems in relationships
  7. Giving up important social, occupational or recreational activities because of substance use
  8. Using substances again and again, even when it puts the you in danger
  9. Continuing to use, even when the you know you have a physical or psychological problem that could have been caused or made worse by the substance
  10. Needing more of the substance to get the effect you want (tolerance)
  11. Development of withdrawal symptoms, which can be relieved by taking more of the substance (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

The Society of Clinical Psychology website for evidence-based practices lists behavioral marital (couples) therapy as having strong research support for alcohol use disorders. Cognitive therapy and contingency management procedures, in which individuals receive “prizes” for clean laboratory samples, have been effective in treating mixed substance use disorders. A separate website of evidence-based practices for substance use disorders is maintained by the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute (http://adai.uw.edu/ebp/). It lists behavioral self-control training and harm reduction approaches as being effective with adults (including college students) experiencing drinking problems. The Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) harm reduction approach will be described in the following chapter (Denerin & Spear, 2012 Dimeff, Baer, Kivlahan, & Marlatt, 1998 Marlatt, 1996 Marlatt, Baer, & Larimer, 1995).


Mental disorder classification

DSM IV disorders fall into 16 major diagnostic classes (like substance-related disorders, mood disorders, or anxiety) and an additional section called "other conditions that could be a focus of clinical attention."

The 16 diagnostic classes

Disorders of childhood and adolescence

Delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders

Mental disorders due to a medical condition, not classified in other sections


THE COMPASSIONATE VIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal. Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life. Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them. It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is it is something that a person has—through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing. These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.


THE COMPASSIONATE VIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal. Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life. Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them. It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is it is something that a person has—through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing. These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.


Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

  • Figure 3 shows the past year prevalence of SMI among U.S. adults.
    • In 2019, there were an estimated 13.1 million adults aged 18 or older in the United States with SMI. This number represented 5.2% of all U.S. adults.
    • The prevalence of SMI was higher among females (6.5%) than males (3.9%).
    • Young adults aged 18-25 years had the highest prevalence of SMI (8.6%) compared to adults aged 26-49 years (6.8%) and aged 50 and older (2.9%).
    • The prevalence of SMI was highest among the adults reporting two or more races (9.3%), followed by AI/AN adults (6.7%). The prevalence of SMI was lowest among NH/OPI adults (2.6% )

    Figure 3

    Past Year Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among U.S. Adults (2019)
    Demographic Percent
    Overall 5.2
    Sex Female 6.5
    Male 3.9
    Age 18-25 8.6
    26-49 6.8
    50+ 2.9
    Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latino* 4.9
    White 5.7
    Black or African American 4.0
    Asian 3.1
    NH/OPI 2.6
    AI/AN 6.7
    2 or More 9.3

    * Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race all other racial/ethnic groups are non-Hispanic. NH/OPI = Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander | AI/AN = American Indian / Alaskan Native


    33.2: The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Menal Disorders (DSM)

    Although a number of classification systems have been developed over time, the one that is used by most mental health professionals in the United States is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association (2013). (Note that the American Psychiatric Association differs from the American Psychological Association, but both are abbreviated APA.) The first edition of the DSM, published in 1952, classified psychological disorders according to a format developed by the U.S. Army during World War II (Clegg, 2012). In the years since, the DSM has undergone numerous revisions and editions. The most recent edition, published in 2013, is the DSM-5 (APA, 2013). The DSM-5 includes many categories of disorders (e.g., anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and dissociative disorders). Each disorder is described in detail, including an overview of the disorder (diagnostic features), specific symptoms required for diagnosis (diagnostic criteria), prevalence information (what percent of the population is thought to be afflicted with the disorder), and risk factors associated with the disorder. Figure (PageIndex<1>) shows lifetime prevalence rates&mdashthe percentage of people in a population who develop a disorder in their lifetime&mdashof various psychological disorders among U.S. adults. These data were based on a national sample of 9,282 U.S. residents (National Comorbidity Survey, 2007).

    Figure (PageIndex<1>): The breakdown of psychological disorders, comparing the percentage prevalence among adult males and adult females in the United States. Because the data is from 2007, the categories shown here are from the DSM-IV, which has been supplanted by the DSM-5. Most categories remain the same however, alcohol abuse now falls under a broader Alcohol Use Disorder category. [This work, &ldquoPrevalence of Psychological Disorders,&rdquo is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 by Judy Schmitt. It is a derivative of &ldquoFigure 15.4&rdquo by Rice University/OpenStax, which is licensed under CC BY 4.0.]

    The DSM-5 also provides information about comorbidity the co-occurrence of two disorders. For example, the DSM-5 mentions that 41% of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) also meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (Figure (PageIndex<2>)). Drug use is highly comorbid with other mental illnesses 6 out of 10 people who have a substance use disorder also suffer from another form of mental illness (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2007).

    Figure (PageIndex<2>): Obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder frequently occur in the same person. [&ldquoOCD and MDD Comorbidity&rdquo by Judy Schmitt is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.]

    The DSM has changed considerably in the half-century since it was originally published. The first two editions of the DSM, for example, listed homosexuality as a disorder how- ever, in 1973, the APA voted to remove it from the manual (Silverstein, 2009). Additionally, beginning with the DSM- III in 1980, mental disorders have been described in much greater detail, and the number of diagnosable conditions has grown steadily, as has the size of the manual itself. DSM-I included 106 diagnoses and was 130 total pages, whereas DSM-III included more than 2 times as many diagnoses (265) and was nearly seven times its size (886 total pages) (Mayes & Horowitz, 2005). Although DSM-5 is longer than DSM-IV, the volume includes only 237 disorders, a decrease from the 297 disorders that were listed in DSM-IV. The latest edition, DSM-5, includes revisions in the organization and naming of categories and in the diagnostic criteria for various disorders (Regier et al., 2012), while emphasizing careful consideration of the importance of gender and cultural difference in the expression of various symptoms (Fisher, 2010).

    Some believe that establishing new diagnoses might overpathologize the human condition by turning common human problems into mental illnesses (The Associated Press, 2013). Indeed, the finding that nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life (Kessler et al., 2005) likely fuels much of this skepticism. The DSM-5 is also criticized on the grounds that its diagnostic criteria have been loosened, thereby threatening to &ldquoturn our current diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation&rdquo (Frances, 2012, para. 22). For example, DSM-IV specified that the symptoms of major depressive disorder must not be attributable to normal bereavement (loss of a loved one). The DSM-5, however, has removed this bereavement exclusion, essentially meaning that grief and sadness after a loved one&rsquos death can constitute major depressive disorder.


    THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES

    A second classification system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) , is also widely recognized. Published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the ICD was developed in Europe shortly after World War II and, like the DSM, has been revised several times. The categories of psychological disorders in both the DSM and ICD are similar, as are the criteria for specific disorders however, some differences exist. Although the ICD is used for clinical purposes, this tool is also used to examine the general health of populations and to monitor the prevalence of diseases and other health problems internationally (WHO, 2013). The ICD is in its 10th edition (ICD-10) however, efforts are now underway to develop a new edition (ICD-11) that, in conjunction with the changes in DSM-5, will help harmonize the two classification systems as much as possible (APA, 2013).

    A study that compared the use of the two classification systems found that worldwide the ICD is more frequently used for clinical diagnosis, whereas the DSM is more valued for research (Mezzich, 2002). Most research findings concerning the etiology and treatment of psychological disorders are based on criteria set forth in the DSM (Oltmanns & Castonguay, 2013). The DSM also includes more explicit disorder criteria, along with an extensive and helpful explanatory text (Regier et al., 2012). The DSM is the classification system of choice among U.S. mental health professionals, and this chapter is based on the DSM paradigm.


    DSM-IV in Popular Psychology

    Published by the American Psychiatric Association, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) is the standard reference book used by American psychiatrists and clinical psychologists for classifying and diagnosing mental disorders. The current edition, the DSM-IV, was published in 1994 and revised slightly in 2000 and renamed the DSM-IV-TR— the TR stands for text revision, indicating that the most recent changes involved the addition of current research and clarification of some portions, rather than any large-scale changes in the classification system within. Given the book’s history, this is an important distinction to make. The first edition, published in 1952, was only 86 pages long and contained only 60 diagnoses. The DSM-IV, by comparison, is 900 pages long and contains nearly 400 diagnoses (see the following Table for the major categories, along with some of the disorders within each).

    Major Diagnostic Categories in the DSM-IV

    This tremendous expansion in the number of disorders has some interesting implications for the apparent prevalence of mental illness in our society. With so many disorder categories, one recent national survey indicates that nearly 30 percent of American adults meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder. Why are there so many more categories now than in the past? Supporters of the DSM-IV’s expansion point out that this simply allows clinicians to diagnose clients more precisely, and thus treat them properly. There is an underlying reason that is less noble but more practical, however: health insurance companies require a DSM diagnostic code on their forms before they will pay for therapy. This puts pressure on the manual’s writers to add more diagnoses so that clinicians can be sure of being paid. This pressure to increase the number of categories has led to some confusion regarding what is a serious mental disorder versus what constitutes an ordinary problem. The latest version of the DSM, for example, includes Mathematics Disorder (not doing well in math) and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disorder. This last one has the unusual virtue, at least, of being very easy to cure—just have the client switch to decaf. Critics are wary of these changes because they seem to imply that minor everyday problems are as likely to require treatment as serious disorders such as schizophrenia. The continuing evolution of the DSM is necessary to reflect changes in the psychiatric and psychological professions and their accumulated knowledge, however, and has removed as many people from the ranks of the diagnosable as the new disorders have added them.

    As social norms change, what is classified as a disorder must change with them. The DSM-III, for example, still listed homosexuality as a disorder. Desiring to have sex too often (nymphomania, a term only applied to women) is no longer considered a disorder, but the DSM-IV does list not wanting it often enough (hypoactive sexual desire disorder). The DSM-IV continues to include a category for emotional problems associated with menstruation, despite having never included any mention of behavioral problems associated with testosterone. This is consistent with psychiatric history, given that one of the founders of the discipline, Sigmund Freud, formulated his theories based largely on observations of female patients suffering from hysteria, which was believed to occur only in women, possibly as a result of being female (note that the root of the word is the Greek term for the uterus, just as in hysterectomy). Clearly, cultural changes and biases have always played a part in psychiatric diagnosis, and they continue to do so today. The DSM continues to be a work in progress, which serves the very important purpose of providing psychiatrists, psychologists, and other therapists a common language to communicate clearly regarding the symptoms and causes of various disorders.


    What Is DSM And How Is It Used To Identify Disorders?

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a tool used by mental health professionals to diagnose various mental illnesses. Though controversial for many reasons, this tool has been helpful since its first publishing in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The APA has revised the manual five times since its initial inception and to this day provides a basis for diagnosis to this day.

    What Is Its History?

    Initially, published in 1952, the DSM arose from an increased need for a standardized way of categorizing disorders that were presenting symptoms in the population. With the field of psychology continually progressing, it needed constant revisions over time to accommodate newly discovered disorders, changes made in classification, and other influencing factors. Before the official publishing of the DSM, psychological professionals used a single category to collect statistical information on the population.

    They called this category "idiocy/insanity." From there, they collected literature about psychological disorders through the consensus, going through multiple revisions and cultural changes to the manual used. It is a long and extensive history if interested in the information there is a list of links that will direct you to the APA website below.

    How Is It Set Up?

    The APA breaks the DSM up into three sections: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptions. The first section is a complete list of psychiatric disorders. The DSM codes each one for both diagnostic and billing purposes for health professionals. It dedicates the second section to how to identify psychological disorders. In the second section, the clinician looks for how the patients presenting symptoms match up with the criteria set forth in the manual regarding behaviors, feelings, and the time the symptoms present for a diagnosis to occur. This diagnosis assists the clinician in how they will proceed with treatment for the patient. The third section of the manual goes into a further description of each disorder and its subsets.

    The DSM is only for use by trained professionals as a diagnostic tool in treating psychological disorders. While it is available to the public, professionals do not recommend its usage by the untrained professionals. Self-diagnosing and trying to diagnose others can be detrimental to the health of both. It is advisable to leave diagnosing to a trained mental health professional.

    What Is It Used For?

    To better help the population of people suffering from mental disorders, the APA created a book to classify them correctly. Such a text is extensive and typically requires revisions every so often to update existing language, add new disorders, or eliminate old disorders aligned with social bias or religious beliefs. Mental health professionals use this text to rule out, determine, and examine disorders that a patient may have and narrow it down to an appropriate diagnosis. The DSM is also useful for explaining to patients their diagnosis and how it will influence and direct treatment.

    Though the DSM helps in the classification of disorders, it does not offer treatment options for curious readers. Professionals use the tool only as a reference for diagnosis. Also, hospitals and insurance companies typically require a DSM diagnosis for their clients to pay for treatment.

    Clinicians rely on self-reported and observable presenting symptoms from their patients and assess them using the DSM to diagnosis their patient. The DSM also provides a basis for research and treatment to further the collection of empirical evidence in psychology. Using this tool, clinicians and researchers can develop new ways to combat symptoms and treat disorders.

    Why Were There So Many Revisions?

    The reason researchers continuously conduct tests is to make sure that their previous efforts produce the same results. Due to the constant change of cultural norms and ever-evolving research that addresses mistakes in the past, the DSM must also change and evolved to account for these changes and to stay relevant. A hypothesis surrounding the reason for a disorder might change from its previous creation, requiring further testing and research to make sure it is accurate.

    Since its inception psychology has and continues to evolve from its beginnings. Researchers and psychologists understand that certain disorders need updating or eliminating due to being obsolete. Just as the techniques for treatment have expanded over the years (e.g., from the outdated use of lobotomies to current standards of medication) so must the criteria and classification of disorders. Updates have included: making more concise and accurate descriptions, appropriately outlining criteria, creating unbiased descriptions of the cause of the disorder tied to obsolete social norms, and updating descriptive language.

    Symptoms, language, and culture change over time, hence the need for frequent revisions. In the early years of the DSM, homosexuality and gender identity were among a multitude of disorders listed that provided no real empirical evidence for its listing, nor was it morally sound. Cultural attitudes changed, and acceptance became increasingly clear in the population, prompting professionals to remove homosexuality from the DSM entirely in 1986. The DSM removed Gender Identity in 2012 as a disorder from the DSM and this due to protests by the transgender community.

    Though it has been heralded as a significant contributor to the mental health field, it has certainly held its flaws. But time, research, and empirical evidence continuously progress the manual forward to remain as accurate and current as possible to modern culture. This ensures that it remains a successful tool in the diagnosis of mental disorders.

    The latest edition is the DSM-V which was revised in 2012 and released officially in 2013.

    How Can Something This Helpful Be Controversial?

    Since the APA has revised the DSM many times over the years, professionals worry that the limited outlines of disorders prevent the proper diagnosis in patients. It bases most requirements on observance and self-reporting of symptoms because there are no concrete tests to determine a disorder, and this makes it slightly difficult for mental health professionals to make accurate decisions.

    Many times, symptoms will overlap - such as for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia - and occasionally symptoms will mask themselves as other disorders, making it difficult to confidently and accurately diagnosis a patient. This is because many descriptions are rather broad. Schizophrenia, for example, has the most overlapping symptoms of all disorders, commonly referred to in psychology as the "trashcan disorder" due to its inclusion of a surprising multitude of symptoms, although revisions of the DSM try to reduce confusion, overlapping still occurs.

    Also, outdated information can be harmful to patients awaiting a diagnosis. Were it not for updates regarding gender identity and sexuality some patients could have faced being diagnosed with a mental disorder that is not harmful or an impediment to their daily functioning. In the past, due to social biases, many people received incorrect treatment.

    For example, people would receive a diagnosis of "hysteria," but it could have been a side effect of cultural expectations, environmental influences, and other potential disorders. The treatment of those with mental disorders has undoubtedly improved since then and continues to improve as research and empirical evidence evolves.

    Some critics believe the DSM promotes an increasingly medicated population for financial gain by pharmaceutical companies. Many critics presume it that the descriptions and requirements for diagnosis are deliberately broad for pharmaceutical companies to take advantage of potential patients. Considering that there have been authors of the DSM involved financially with these institutions, it has presented itself as a conflict of interest is under constant scrutiny. Critics continuously criticize the work for its potential bias towards pharmaceuticals.

    Despite these controversies, the DSM remains a trusted tool in aiding those with disorders and researchers and clinicians who are looking for new ways to treat illnesses. It is ultimately one of the few books of its kind in the world that has required a great deal of research, care, and effort to collect over the years.

    When Is The Right Time To Seek Help For Symptoms?

    If you believe you are exhibiting symptoms of a mental disorder, it is imperative to seek treatment immediately. Symptoms can be tricky and might mask themselves as other issues, so it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible to rule out any other potential health issues. Once you have a clear idea of what is going on, your doctor can recommend a specialist who can help guide you in the right direction.

    Examples of symptoms that might prompt people to get help include depression, panic, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, withdrawal, apathy, lack of connection, unusual behavior, and mood changes. Any combination of these symptoms can indicate a disorder, but only a mental health professional is qualified to diagnose.

    For more information from the comfort of your own home or to get a head start on your mental health, click the following link: https://www.betterhelp.com/start/

    For additional information about the DSM and its revisions, check out the following links:

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    What does DSM mean?

    &ldquoDSM&rdquo refers to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It&rsquos used for the official diagnosis and classification of mental disorders. In news releases, when reading psychology information only, and when learning about mental disorders, it&rsquos likely that you&rsquove seen the DSM referenced on multiple occasions.

    What is the DSM 5 definition of mental disorder?

    A mental disorder is a mental illness. The american psychiatric association apa website defines mental illness by saying, &ldquoMental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities.&rdquo

    What is the difference between DSM 4 and DSM 5?

    The revisions made to the DSM-5 were largely made to improve the classification of mental disorders. The DSM-5 includes terminology and diagnoses that weren&rsquot present in the DSM-4, allowing more people to get an accurate diagnosis and receive the help that they need. Two notable differences, for example, are that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is no longer considered an anxiety disorder in the DSM and that gender dysphoria is listed in the new edition. The frequently asked questions page on the american psychiatric association (APA) website explains the need for the changes made in the DSM-5 by saying, &ldquoMany of the changes in DSM&ndash5 were made to better characterize symptoms and behaviors of groups of people who are currently seeking clinical help but whose symptoms are not well defined by DSM&ndashIV (meaning they are less likely to have access to treatment). Our hope is that by more accurately defining disorders, diagnosis and clinical care will be improved and new research will be facilitated to further our understanding of mental disorders.&rdquo

    What are the 5 DSM categories?

    The categories included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM 5 include:

    • Neurodevelopmental Disorders
    • Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders
    • Bipolar and related disorders
    • Depressive disorders
    • Anxiety disorders
    • Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
    • Trauma and stressor-related disorders
    • Dissociative disorders
    • Somatic symptom and related disorders
    • Feeding and eating disorders
    • Elimination disorders
    • Sleep-wake disorders
    • Sexual dysfunctions
    • Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders
    • Substance-related and addictive disorders
    • Neurocognitive disorders
    • Personality disorders
    • Paraphilic disorders
    • Other mental disorders

    What does the DSM 5 stand for?

    &ldquoDSM 5&rdquo stands for or refers to the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It was released in 2013, where the DSM 4 was released in 1994.

    Is DSM IV still used?

    The DSM-IV isn&rsquot used in clinical settings and is no longer used for diagnosing mental disorders. When diagnosing mental disorders, providers now use the DSM-V. When using common language, however, some people still reference diagnoses and terms used in the DSM-IV. In fact, common language sometimes includes terms from versions of the DSM that existed prior to the DSM-IV. An example of outdated terms being used in common language would be the use of the term &ldquomanic depression,&rdquo which we now know as bipolar disorder.

    What is a DSM category?

    Categories in the DSM are used to group mental health conditions. For example, eating disorders are listed under the DSM category called &ldquofeeding and eating disorders,&rdquo and post traumatic stress disorder PTSD is under the category called &ldquotrauma and stressor-related disorders.&rdquo Therapists, psychiatrists, general doctors, and those in the field of social work may reference the DSM. Patients families and clients seeking general or basic mental health information do not necessarily need to know all of the details of the DSM categories, but should patients families and clients want to, much of this information is available online in a PDF format.

    What disorders are in the DSM 5?

    Disorders that fall under the categories listed under the question, &ldquoWhat are the 5 DSM categories?&rdquo are all listed in the DSM-5. These disorders include but aren&rsquot limited to depressive disorders anxiety disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders. The development of DSM categories and revisions to terminology, criteria, and so on, have served as a way to better categorize and diagnose people living with mental health conditions.

    Is the DSM reliable?

    The DSM is reliable. While future revisions will occur as we continue to gain knowledge about mental health and mental disorders, the DSM is used for diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. It is compatible with billing codes used for insurance companies, which is one of the reasons why an accurate diagnosis can help people living with mental health conditions. On the psychiatry.org website, there is a frequently asked questions page regarding the DSM-5 that explains the importance of the DSM and how it&rsquos used. According to the APA, &ldquoDSM-5&rsquos Task Force and 13 Work Groups include more than 160 mental health and medical professionals who are leaders in their respective fields.&rdquo In addition to these work groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) was involved in the development of the DSM-5. Click here to learn more about the development of DSM criteria for the new edition as well as the organizations and providers involved. The rights reserved statement of the DSM-5 reads, &ldquoDSM-5 is a registered trademark, and all of its content is protected by copyright held by the American Psychiatric Association. All rights are reserved, and written permission is required from the American Psychiatric Association for use in any way, commercial or noncommercial.&rdquo

    What are the 5 axis in psychology?

    In the DSM-4, the 5 axis were Axis I (mental health and substance use disorders), Axis II (personality disorders and mental retardation), Axis III (coding general medical conditions), Axis IV (psychosocial and environmental problems), and Axis V (assessment of overall functioning via the GAF scale, which has since been dropped).

    How many disorders are in DSM IV?

    297 disorders were included in the DSM-IV.

    What does multiaxial mean?

    The APA dictionary of psychology defines multiaxial classification as, &ldquoa system of classifying mental disorders according to several categories of factors (e.g., social and cultural influences) as well as clinical symptoms.&rdquo

    What is the difference between Axis I and Axis II disorders?

    While the multi axial system has been eliminated, Axis I disorders previously consisted of &ldquomental health and substance use disorders,&rdquo where Axis II consisted of &ldquopersonality disorders and mental retardation.&rdquo (Source).

    What does the DSM 5 say about ADHD?

    The changes made to the DSM-5 reflect the increased knowledge that we have surrounding ADHD and other disorders. In the DSM-5, ADHD is classified under the category of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. The changes in the DSM-5 regarding ADHD were most notable in the sense that they have allowed more people to gain an accurate diagnosis. News releases on ADHD continue to provide emerging information about ADHD and other disorders.


    Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    • Figure 3 shows the past year prevalence of SMI among U.S. adults.
      • In 2019, there were an estimated 13.1 million adults aged 18 or older in the United States with SMI. This number represented 5.2% of all U.S. adults.
      • The prevalence of SMI was higher among females (6.5%) than males (3.9%).
      • Young adults aged 18-25 years had the highest prevalence of SMI (8.6%) compared to adults aged 26-49 years (6.8%) and aged 50 and older (2.9%).
      • The prevalence of SMI was highest among the adults reporting two or more races (9.3%), followed by AI/AN adults (6.7%). The prevalence of SMI was lowest among NH/OPI adults (2.6% )

      Figure 3

      Past Year Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among U.S. Adults (2019)
      Demographic Percent
      Overall 5.2
      Sex Female 6.5
      Male 3.9
      Age 18-25 8.6
      26-49 6.8
      50+ 2.9
      Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latino* 4.9
      White 5.7
      Black or African American 4.0
      Asian 3.1
      NH/OPI 2.6
      AI/AN 6.7
      2 or More 9.3

      * Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race all other racial/ethnic groups are non-Hispanic. NH/OPI = Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander | AI/AN = American Indian / Alaskan Native


      Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

      The following drugs are considered addictive in DSM-5: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis (marijuana), hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), inhalants, opioids (pain killers), sedatives (tranquilizers), hypnotics (sleep inducers), stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine), cocaine, and tobacco (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Our evolving understanding of the reward mechanisms involved in addictive disorders is an excellent example of the synergy between psychology and psychiatry. For example, the fact that gambling appears to activate the same brain reward mechanisms as drugs, resulted in its inclusion under substance use disorder in DSM-5.

      Olds and Milner (1954) discovered that electrical stimulation of certain areas of a rat’s brain served as a powerful reinforcer for a rat’s bar-pressing behavior. Later it was discovered that manipulating the pulse of electrical stimulation produced behavioral effects similar to those resulting from different drug dosages higher pulse rates acted like higher dosages. The effects were so powerful that rats preferred electrical stimulation to food and would continue to press the bar despite being starved (Wise, 1996)! In this respect, electrical brain stimulation acts in a manner similar to other addictive substances the individual craves the substance despite self-destructive consequences. The same parts of the brain mediate the reinforcing effects of electrical stimulation and different drugs through the neurotransmitter dopamine (Wise, 1989, 1996).

      Similar to autism and schizophrenia, the DSM-5 collapses across previous distinctions between types of substance abuse and addictive disorders and provides criteria for indicating severity. The diagnosis of substance use disorder encompasses the previous diagnoses of substance abuse and substance dependence. The severity of the disorder is based on the number of symptoms identified from the following list (2-3 = mild, 4-5 = moderate, six or more = severe):

      1. Taking the substance in larger amounts or for longer than the you meant to
      2. Wanting to cut down or stop using the substance but not managing to
      3. Spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering from use of the substance
      4. Cravings and urges to use the substance
      5. Not managing to do what you should at work, home or school, because of substance use
      6. Continuing to use, even when it causes problems in relationships
      7. Giving up important social, occupational or recreational activities because of substance use
      8. Using substances again and again, even when it puts the you in danger
      9. Continuing to use, even when the you know you have a physical or psychological problem that could have been caused or made worse by the substance
      10. Needing more of the substance to get the effect you want (tolerance)
      11. Development of withdrawal symptoms, which can be relieved by taking more of the substance (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

      The Society of Clinical Psychology website for evidence-based practices lists behavioral marital (couples) therapy as having strong research support for alcohol use disorders. Cognitive therapy and contingency management procedures, in which individuals receive “prizes” for clean laboratory samples, have been effective in treating mixed substance use disorders. A separate website of evidence-based practices for substance use disorders is maintained by the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute (http://adai.uw.edu/ebp/). It lists behavioral self-control training and harm reduction approaches as being effective with adults (including college students) experiencing drinking problems. The Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) harm reduction approach will be described in the following chapter (Denerin & Spear, 2012 Dimeff, Baer, Kivlahan, & Marlatt, 1998 Marlatt, 1996 Marlatt, Baer, & Larimer, 1995).


      THE COMPASSIONATE VIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

      As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal. Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life. Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them. It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is it is something that a person has—through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing. These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.


      THE COMPASSIONATE VIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

      As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal. Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life. Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them. It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is it is something that a person has—through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing. These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.


      33.2: The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Menal Disorders (DSM)

      Although a number of classification systems have been developed over time, the one that is used by most mental health professionals in the United States is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association (2013). (Note that the American Psychiatric Association differs from the American Psychological Association, but both are abbreviated APA.) The first edition of the DSM, published in 1952, classified psychological disorders according to a format developed by the U.S. Army during World War II (Clegg, 2012). In the years since, the DSM has undergone numerous revisions and editions. The most recent edition, published in 2013, is the DSM-5 (APA, 2013). The DSM-5 includes many categories of disorders (e.g., anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and dissociative disorders). Each disorder is described in detail, including an overview of the disorder (diagnostic features), specific symptoms required for diagnosis (diagnostic criteria), prevalence information (what percent of the population is thought to be afflicted with the disorder), and risk factors associated with the disorder. Figure (PageIndex<1>) shows lifetime prevalence rates&mdashthe percentage of people in a population who develop a disorder in their lifetime&mdashof various psychological disorders among U.S. adults. These data were based on a national sample of 9,282 U.S. residents (National Comorbidity Survey, 2007).

      Figure (PageIndex<1>): The breakdown of psychological disorders, comparing the percentage prevalence among adult males and adult females in the United States. Because the data is from 2007, the categories shown here are from the DSM-IV, which has been supplanted by the DSM-5. Most categories remain the same however, alcohol abuse now falls under a broader Alcohol Use Disorder category. [This work, &ldquoPrevalence of Psychological Disorders,&rdquo is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 by Judy Schmitt. It is a derivative of &ldquoFigure 15.4&rdquo by Rice University/OpenStax, which is licensed under CC BY 4.0.]

      The DSM-5 also provides information about comorbidity the co-occurrence of two disorders. For example, the DSM-5 mentions that 41% of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) also meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (Figure (PageIndex<2>)). Drug use is highly comorbid with other mental illnesses 6 out of 10 people who have a substance use disorder also suffer from another form of mental illness (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2007).

      Figure (PageIndex<2>): Obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder frequently occur in the same person. [&ldquoOCD and MDD Comorbidity&rdquo by Judy Schmitt is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.]

      The DSM has changed considerably in the half-century since it was originally published. The first two editions of the DSM, for example, listed homosexuality as a disorder how- ever, in 1973, the APA voted to remove it from the manual (Silverstein, 2009). Additionally, beginning with the DSM- III in 1980, mental disorders have been described in much greater detail, and the number of diagnosable conditions has grown steadily, as has the size of the manual itself. DSM-I included 106 diagnoses and was 130 total pages, whereas DSM-III included more than 2 times as many diagnoses (265) and was nearly seven times its size (886 total pages) (Mayes & Horowitz, 2005). Although DSM-5 is longer than DSM-IV, the volume includes only 237 disorders, a decrease from the 297 disorders that were listed in DSM-IV. The latest edition, DSM-5, includes revisions in the organization and naming of categories and in the diagnostic criteria for various disorders (Regier et al., 2012), while emphasizing careful consideration of the importance of gender and cultural difference in the expression of various symptoms (Fisher, 2010).

      Some believe that establishing new diagnoses might overpathologize the human condition by turning common human problems into mental illnesses (The Associated Press, 2013). Indeed, the finding that nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life (Kessler et al., 2005) likely fuels much of this skepticism. The DSM-5 is also criticized on the grounds that its diagnostic criteria have been loosened, thereby threatening to &ldquoturn our current diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation&rdquo (Frances, 2012, para. 22). For example, DSM-IV specified that the symptoms of major depressive disorder must not be attributable to normal bereavement (loss of a loved one). The DSM-5, however, has removed this bereavement exclusion, essentially meaning that grief and sadness after a loved one&rsquos death can constitute major depressive disorder.


      What Is DSM And How Is It Used To Identify Disorders?

      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a tool used by mental health professionals to diagnose various mental illnesses. Though controversial for many reasons, this tool has been helpful since its first publishing in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The APA has revised the manual five times since its initial inception and to this day provides a basis for diagnosis to this day.

      What Is Its History?

      Initially, published in 1952, the DSM arose from an increased need for a standardized way of categorizing disorders that were presenting symptoms in the population. With the field of psychology continually progressing, it needed constant revisions over time to accommodate newly discovered disorders, changes made in classification, and other influencing factors. Before the official publishing of the DSM, psychological professionals used a single category to collect statistical information on the population.

      They called this category "idiocy/insanity." From there, they collected literature about psychological disorders through the consensus, going through multiple revisions and cultural changes to the manual used. It is a long and extensive history if interested in the information there is a list of links that will direct you to the APA website below.

      How Is It Set Up?

      The APA breaks the DSM up into three sections: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptions. The first section is a complete list of psychiatric disorders. The DSM codes each one for both diagnostic and billing purposes for health professionals. It dedicates the second section to how to identify psychological disorders. In the second section, the clinician looks for how the patients presenting symptoms match up with the criteria set forth in the manual regarding behaviors, feelings, and the time the symptoms present for a diagnosis to occur. This diagnosis assists the clinician in how they will proceed with treatment for the patient. The third section of the manual goes into a further description of each disorder and its subsets.

      The DSM is only for use by trained professionals as a diagnostic tool in treating psychological disorders. While it is available to the public, professionals do not recommend its usage by the untrained professionals. Self-diagnosing and trying to diagnose others can be detrimental to the health of both. It is advisable to leave diagnosing to a trained mental health professional.

      What Is It Used For?

      To better help the population of people suffering from mental disorders, the APA created a book to classify them correctly. Such a text is extensive and typically requires revisions every so often to update existing language, add new disorders, or eliminate old disorders aligned with social bias or religious beliefs. Mental health professionals use this text to rule out, determine, and examine disorders that a patient may have and narrow it down to an appropriate diagnosis. The DSM is also useful for explaining to patients their diagnosis and how it will influence and direct treatment.

      Though the DSM helps in the classification of disorders, it does not offer treatment options for curious readers. Professionals use the tool only as a reference for diagnosis. Also, hospitals and insurance companies typically require a DSM diagnosis for their clients to pay for treatment.

      Clinicians rely on self-reported and observable presenting symptoms from their patients and assess them using the DSM to diagnosis their patient. The DSM also provides a basis for research and treatment to further the collection of empirical evidence in psychology. Using this tool, clinicians and researchers can develop new ways to combat symptoms and treat disorders.

      Why Were There So Many Revisions?

      The reason researchers continuously conduct tests is to make sure that their previous efforts produce the same results. Due to the constant change of cultural norms and ever-evolving research that addresses mistakes in the past, the DSM must also change and evolved to account for these changes and to stay relevant. A hypothesis surrounding the reason for a disorder might change from its previous creation, requiring further testing and research to make sure it is accurate.

      Since its inception psychology has and continues to evolve from its beginnings. Researchers and psychologists understand that certain disorders need updating or eliminating due to being obsolete. Just as the techniques for treatment have expanded over the years (e.g., from the outdated use of lobotomies to current standards of medication) so must the criteria and classification of disorders. Updates have included: making more concise and accurate descriptions, appropriately outlining criteria, creating unbiased descriptions of the cause of the disorder tied to obsolete social norms, and updating descriptive language.

      Symptoms, language, and culture change over time, hence the need for frequent revisions. In the early years of the DSM, homosexuality and gender identity were among a multitude of disorders listed that provided no real empirical evidence for its listing, nor was it morally sound. Cultural attitudes changed, and acceptance became increasingly clear in the population, prompting professionals to remove homosexuality from the DSM entirely in 1986. The DSM removed Gender Identity in 2012 as a disorder from the DSM and this due to protests by the transgender community.

      Though it has been heralded as a significant contributor to the mental health field, it has certainly held its flaws. But time, research, and empirical evidence continuously progress the manual forward to remain as accurate and current as possible to modern culture. This ensures that it remains a successful tool in the diagnosis of mental disorders.

      The latest edition is the DSM-V which was revised in 2012 and released officially in 2013.

      How Can Something This Helpful Be Controversial?

      Since the APA has revised the DSM many times over the years, professionals worry that the limited outlines of disorders prevent the proper diagnosis in patients. It bases most requirements on observance and self-reporting of symptoms because there are no concrete tests to determine a disorder, and this makes it slightly difficult for mental health professionals to make accurate decisions.

      Many times, symptoms will overlap - such as for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia - and occasionally symptoms will mask themselves as other disorders, making it difficult to confidently and accurately diagnosis a patient. This is because many descriptions are rather broad. Schizophrenia, for example, has the most overlapping symptoms of all disorders, commonly referred to in psychology as the "trashcan disorder" due to its inclusion of a surprising multitude of symptoms, although revisions of the DSM try to reduce confusion, overlapping still occurs.

      Also, outdated information can be harmful to patients awaiting a diagnosis. Were it not for updates regarding gender identity and sexuality some patients could have faced being diagnosed with a mental disorder that is not harmful or an impediment to their daily functioning. In the past, due to social biases, many people received incorrect treatment.

      For example, people would receive a diagnosis of "hysteria," but it could have been a side effect of cultural expectations, environmental influences, and other potential disorders. The treatment of those with mental disorders has undoubtedly improved since then and continues to improve as research and empirical evidence evolves.

      Some critics believe the DSM promotes an increasingly medicated population for financial gain by pharmaceutical companies. Many critics presume it that the descriptions and requirements for diagnosis are deliberately broad for pharmaceutical companies to take advantage of potential patients. Considering that there have been authors of the DSM involved financially with these institutions, it has presented itself as a conflict of interest is under constant scrutiny. Critics continuously criticize the work for its potential bias towards pharmaceuticals.

      Despite these controversies, the DSM remains a trusted tool in aiding those with disorders and researchers and clinicians who are looking for new ways to treat illnesses. It is ultimately one of the few books of its kind in the world that has required a great deal of research, care, and effort to collect over the years.

      When Is The Right Time To Seek Help For Symptoms?

      If you believe you are exhibiting symptoms of a mental disorder, it is imperative to seek treatment immediately. Symptoms can be tricky and might mask themselves as other issues, so it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible to rule out any other potential health issues. Once you have a clear idea of what is going on, your doctor can recommend a specialist who can help guide you in the right direction.

      Examples of symptoms that might prompt people to get help include depression, panic, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, withdrawal, apathy, lack of connection, unusual behavior, and mood changes. Any combination of these symptoms can indicate a disorder, but only a mental health professional is qualified to diagnose.

      For more information from the comfort of your own home or to get a head start on your mental health, click the following link: https://www.betterhelp.com/start/

      For additional information about the DSM and its revisions, check out the following links:

      Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

      What does DSM mean?

      &ldquoDSM&rdquo refers to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It&rsquos used for the official diagnosis and classification of mental disorders. In news releases, when reading psychology information only, and when learning about mental disorders, it&rsquos likely that you&rsquove seen the DSM referenced on multiple occasions.

      What is the DSM 5 definition of mental disorder?

      A mental disorder is a mental illness. The american psychiatric association apa website defines mental illness by saying, &ldquoMental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities.&rdquo

      What is the difference between DSM 4 and DSM 5?

      The revisions made to the DSM-5 were largely made to improve the classification of mental disorders. The DSM-5 includes terminology and diagnoses that weren&rsquot present in the DSM-4, allowing more people to get an accurate diagnosis and receive the help that they need. Two notable differences, for example, are that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is no longer considered an anxiety disorder in the DSM and that gender dysphoria is listed in the new edition. The frequently asked questions page on the american psychiatric association (APA) website explains the need for the changes made in the DSM-5 by saying, &ldquoMany of the changes in DSM&ndash5 were made to better characterize symptoms and behaviors of groups of people who are currently seeking clinical help but whose symptoms are not well defined by DSM&ndashIV (meaning they are less likely to have access to treatment). Our hope is that by more accurately defining disorders, diagnosis and clinical care will be improved and new research will be facilitated to further our understanding of mental disorders.&rdquo

      What are the 5 DSM categories?

      The categories included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM 5 include:

      • Neurodevelopmental Disorders
      • Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders
      • Bipolar and related disorders
      • Depressive disorders
      • Anxiety disorders
      • Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
      • Trauma and stressor-related disorders
      • Dissociative disorders
      • Somatic symptom and related disorders
      • Feeding and eating disorders
      • Elimination disorders
      • Sleep-wake disorders
      • Sexual dysfunctions
      • Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders
      • Substance-related and addictive disorders
      • Neurocognitive disorders
      • Personality disorders
      • Paraphilic disorders
      • Other mental disorders

      What does the DSM 5 stand for?

      &ldquoDSM 5&rdquo stands for or refers to the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It was released in 2013, where the DSM 4 was released in 1994.

      Is DSM IV still used?

      The DSM-IV isn&rsquot used in clinical settings and is no longer used for diagnosing mental disorders. When diagnosing mental disorders, providers now use the DSM-V. When using common language, however, some people still reference diagnoses and terms used in the DSM-IV. In fact, common language sometimes includes terms from versions of the DSM that existed prior to the DSM-IV. An example of outdated terms being used in common language would be the use of the term &ldquomanic depression,&rdquo which we now know as bipolar disorder.

      What is a DSM category?

      Categories in the DSM are used to group mental health conditions. For example, eating disorders are listed under the DSM category called &ldquofeeding and eating disorders,&rdquo and post traumatic stress disorder PTSD is under the category called &ldquotrauma and stressor-related disorders.&rdquo Therapists, psychiatrists, general doctors, and those in the field of social work may reference the DSM. Patients families and clients seeking general or basic mental health information do not necessarily need to know all of the details of the DSM categories, but should patients families and clients want to, much of this information is available online in a PDF format.

      What disorders are in the DSM 5?

      Disorders that fall under the categories listed under the question, &ldquoWhat are the 5 DSM categories?&rdquo are all listed in the DSM-5. These disorders include but aren&rsquot limited to depressive disorders anxiety disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders. The development of DSM categories and revisions to terminology, criteria, and so on, have served as a way to better categorize and diagnose people living with mental health conditions.

      Is the DSM reliable?

      The DSM is reliable. While future revisions will occur as we continue to gain knowledge about mental health and mental disorders, the DSM is used for diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. It is compatible with billing codes used for insurance companies, which is one of the reasons why an accurate diagnosis can help people living with mental health conditions. On the psychiatry.org website, there is a frequently asked questions page regarding the DSM-5 that explains the importance of the DSM and how it&rsquos used. According to the APA, &ldquoDSM-5&rsquos Task Force and 13 Work Groups include more than 160 mental health and medical professionals who are leaders in their respective fields.&rdquo In addition to these work groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) was involved in the development of the DSM-5. Click here to learn more about the development of DSM criteria for the new edition as well as the organizations and providers involved. The rights reserved statement of the DSM-5 reads, &ldquoDSM-5 is a registered trademark, and all of its content is protected by copyright held by the American Psychiatric Association. All rights are reserved, and written permission is required from the American Psychiatric Association for use in any way, commercial or noncommercial.&rdquo

      What are the 5 axis in psychology?

      In the DSM-4, the 5 axis were Axis I (mental health and substance use disorders), Axis II (personality disorders and mental retardation), Axis III (coding general medical conditions), Axis IV (psychosocial and environmental problems), and Axis V (assessment of overall functioning via the GAF scale, which has since been dropped).

      How many disorders are in DSM IV?

      297 disorders were included in the DSM-IV.

      What does multiaxial mean?

      The APA dictionary of psychology defines multiaxial classification as, &ldquoa system of classifying mental disorders according to several categories of factors (e.g., social and cultural influences) as well as clinical symptoms.&rdquo

      What is the difference between Axis I and Axis II disorders?

      While the multi axial system has been eliminated, Axis I disorders previously consisted of &ldquomental health and substance use disorders,&rdquo where Axis II consisted of &ldquopersonality disorders and mental retardation.&rdquo (Source).

      What does the DSM 5 say about ADHD?

      The changes made to the DSM-5 reflect the increased knowledge that we have surrounding ADHD and other disorders. In the DSM-5, ADHD is classified under the category of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. The changes in the DSM-5 regarding ADHD were most notable in the sense that they have allowed more people to gain an accurate diagnosis. News releases on ADHD continue to provide emerging information about ADHD and other disorders.


      THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES

      A second classification system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) , is also widely recognized. Published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the ICD was developed in Europe shortly after World War II and, like the DSM, has been revised several times. The categories of psychological disorders in both the DSM and ICD are similar, as are the criteria for specific disorders however, some differences exist. Although the ICD is used for clinical purposes, this tool is also used to examine the general health of populations and to monitor the prevalence of diseases and other health problems internationally (WHO, 2013). The ICD is in its 10th edition (ICD-10) however, efforts are now underway to develop a new edition (ICD-11) that, in conjunction with the changes in DSM-5, will help harmonize the two classification systems as much as possible (APA, 2013).

      A study that compared the use of the two classification systems found that worldwide the ICD is more frequently used for clinical diagnosis, whereas the DSM is more valued for research (Mezzich, 2002). Most research findings concerning the etiology and treatment of psychological disorders are based on criteria set forth in the DSM (Oltmanns & Castonguay, 2013). The DSM also includes more explicit disorder criteria, along with an extensive and helpful explanatory text (Regier et al., 2012). The DSM is the classification system of choice among U.S. mental health professionals, and this chapter is based on the DSM paradigm.


      DSM-IV in Popular Psychology

      Published by the American Psychiatric Association, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) is the standard reference book used by American psychiatrists and clinical psychologists for classifying and diagnosing mental disorders. The current edition, the DSM-IV, was published in 1994 and revised slightly in 2000 and renamed the DSM-IV-TR— the TR stands for text revision, indicating that the most recent changes involved the addition of current research and clarification of some portions, rather than any large-scale changes in the classification system within. Given the book’s history, this is an important distinction to make. The first edition, published in 1952, was only 86 pages long and contained only 60 diagnoses. The DSM-IV, by comparison, is 900 pages long and contains nearly 400 diagnoses (see the following Table for the major categories, along with some of the disorders within each).

      Major Diagnostic Categories in the DSM-IV

      This tremendous expansion in the number of disorders has some interesting implications for the apparent prevalence of mental illness in our society. With so many disorder categories, one recent national survey indicates that nearly 30 percent of American adults meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder. Why are there so many more categories now than in the past? Supporters of the DSM-IV’s expansion point out that this simply allows clinicians to diagnose clients more precisely, and thus treat them properly. There is an underlying reason that is less noble but more practical, however: health insurance companies require a DSM diagnostic code on their forms before they will pay for therapy. This puts pressure on the manual’s writers to add more diagnoses so that clinicians can be sure of being paid. This pressure to increase the number of categories has led to some confusion regarding what is a serious mental disorder versus what constitutes an ordinary problem. The latest version of the DSM, for example, includes Mathematics Disorder (not doing well in math) and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disorder. This last one has the unusual virtue, at least, of being very easy to cure—just have the client switch to decaf. Critics are wary of these changes because they seem to imply that minor everyday problems are as likely to require treatment as serious disorders such as schizophrenia. The continuing evolution of the DSM is necessary to reflect changes in the psychiatric and psychological professions and their accumulated knowledge, however, and has removed as many people from the ranks of the diagnosable as the new disorders have added them.

      As social norms change, what is classified as a disorder must change with them. The DSM-III, for example, still listed homosexuality as a disorder. Desiring to have sex too often (nymphomania, a term only applied to women) is no longer considered a disorder, but the DSM-IV does list not wanting it often enough (hypoactive sexual desire disorder). The DSM-IV continues to include a category for emotional problems associated with menstruation, despite having never included any mention of behavioral problems associated with testosterone. This is consistent with psychiatric history, given that one of the founders of the discipline, Sigmund Freud, formulated his theories based largely on observations of female patients suffering from hysteria, which was believed to occur only in women, possibly as a result of being female (note that the root of the word is the Greek term for the uterus, just as in hysterectomy). Clearly, cultural changes and biases have always played a part in psychiatric diagnosis, and they continue to do so today. The DSM continues to be a work in progress, which serves the very important purpose of providing psychiatrists, psychologists, and other therapists a common language to communicate clearly regarding the symptoms and causes of various disorders.


      Mental disorder classification

      DSM IV disorders fall into 16 major diagnostic classes (like substance-related disorders, mood disorders, or anxiety) and an additional section called "other conditions that could be a focus of clinical attention."

      The 16 diagnostic classes

      Disorders of childhood and adolescence

      Delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders

      Mental disorders due to a medical condition, not classified in other sections